The molecular basis of color vision in colorful fish: Four Long Wave-Sensitive (LWS) opsins in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are defined by amino acid substitutions at key functional sites
© Ward et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
Received: 18 January 2008
Accepted: 18 July 2008
Published: 18 July 2008
Comparisons of functionally important changes at the molecular level in model systems have identified key adaptations driving isolation and speciation. In cichlids, for example, long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsins appear to play a role in mate choice and male color variation within and among species. To test the hypothesis that the evolution of elaborate coloration in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) is also associated with opsin gene diversity, we sequenced long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes in six species of the family Poeciliidae.
Sequences of four LWS opsin genes were amplified from the guppy genome and from mRNA isolated from adult guppy eyes. Variation in expression was quantified using qPCR. Three of the four genes encode opsins predicted to be most sensitive to different wavelengths of light because they vary at key amino acid positions. This family of LWS opsin genes was produced by a diversity of duplication events. One, an intronless gene, was produced prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae. Between-gene PCR and DNA sequencing show that two of the guppy LWS opsins are linked in an inverted orientation. This inverted tandem duplication event occurred near the base of the poeciliid tree in the common ancestor of Poecilia and Xiphophorus. The fourth sequence has been uncovered only in the genus Poecilia. In the guppies surveyed here, this sequence is a hybrid, with the 5' end most similar to one of the tandem duplicates and the 3' end identical to the other.
Enhanced wavelength discrimination, a possible consequence of opsin gene duplication and divergence, might have been an evolutionary prerequisite for color-based sexual selection and have led to the extraordinary coloration now observed in male guppies and in many other poeciliids.
Understanding the molecular basis of characters shaped by selection is a major goal of evolutionary genetics. Of particular interest are genes that encode conspicuous secondary sexual traits in males and the genes that influence female preference for such traits . Among fish; sticklebacks (genus Gasterosteus), cichlids, and poeciliids, including the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and swordtails (genus Xiphophorus), are the most important models for the study of sexual selection driven by female choice. In each of these taxa, female mate choice is influenced by male coloration and in each group, male coloration and female preference have a genetic basis [2–6].
Mapping studies designed to uncover genes responsible for species- and population-level color variation in cichlids and sticklebacks are underway  but to date none have been identified. While it is also the case that no female preference loci have been uncovered in fish, many cichlid species and some populations possess unique opsin genes that provide strong candidates. Indeed, the only DNA sequences that have been found to differ among the 200 to 500 endemic Lake Victoria haplochromine species are long wave-sensitive (LWS) opsins [8, 9]. In the cichlid genus Pundamilia, LWS opsin sequence and expression appears to be tuned to specific male color morphs . Thus, it appears that variation in LWS opsin genes influences female mate choice and speciation in this family .
Opsin genes encode membrane-bound receptors that are expressed primarily in rod and cone cells of the retina. Each opsin protein is associated with a chromophore and when exposed to light, this complex changes shape leading to rod or cone cell hyperpolarization . The detection of light at the receptor level requires input from just one type of opsin-chromophore receptor. However, discriminating among colors (wavelengths) involves the interpretation of signals from multiple adjacent retinal cone cells expressing different opsins. These different opsins often have names that reflect the wavelength of light to which they are most sensitive. For instance, short wave-sensitive (SWS), middle wave-sensitive (MWS), and long wave-sensitive opsins (LWS) are most sensitive to blue, green and red light, respectively. Gene duplication and divergence has generated this opsin diversity. For example, the human MWS opsin is a duplicate (or paralog) of the LWS opsin locus and now differs at three of the five amino acid positions known to influence wavelength sensitivity [13–16]. Zebrafish also have a pair of LWS opsin genes with different five key-site haplotypes .
The purpose of this study was to characterize LWS opsin gene sequence variation in guppies and in closely related species. We focused on this gene because microspectrophotometry (MSP) data indicated that guppies express more than one type of LWS opsin [18, 19] and because orange is an important component of female mate choice for these fish [4, 20–22]. While two recent studies have reported LWS opsin gene variation in guppies [23, 24], one focused only on short amplicons from a single fish and both presented incomplete data on the key-site amino acids known to influence spectral sensitivity. Genomic sequences, transcript expression levels, and data from other poeciliids have also not been reported to date.
We show that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) and three species in the guppy sister group (Micropoecilia) have four LWS genes. Sequence variation at the five key sites indicates that three of these LWS opsins are most sensitive to different wavelengths of light providing Poecilia with a larger repertoire of LWS pigments than any other fish taxon. One of the guppy LWS opsins appears to be a single-exon gene, likely arising from a retrotransposition event. This gene was sequenced in all poeciliids surveyed except Tomeurus gracilis and has also been reported in the killifish, Lucania goodei (family Fundulidae). Two LWS opsins are linked, oriented in a tail-to-tail fashion, and separated by approximately 3.3 Kbp. The fourth is found only in the genus Poecilia. This is a hybrid or mosaic sequence in the guppies surveyed here from Cumaná Venezuela. All four LWS opsins in the guppy were amplified from RNA isolated from adult eyes, but qPCR experiments show much variation among these duplicates in the level of expression.
Genomic PCR and sequencing
All species surveyed are in the family Poeciliidae. Long wave-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes were amplified from DNA isolated from Tomeurus gracilis (one individual), Xiphophorus pygmaeus (one individual), and from four species in the genus Poecilia: P. reticulata (14 individuals), P. picta (four individuals) P. parae (three individuals) and P. bifurca (three individuals). The genus Tomeurus is the sister group to a clade that includes Poecilia and Xiphophorus, and most other poeciliids [25, 26]. Poecilia picta, P. parae, and P. bifurca, occur in the sister taxon to the guppy . They were in a separate genus previous to Rosen and Bailey's  revision of the poeciliids and we refer to them collectively as Micropoecilia. Poecilia reticulata (the guppy) was sampled from a population collected in Cumaná, Venezuela and bred in our laboratory aquarium. The Cumaná guppy has also been referred to as Endler's guppy, but is closely related to other guppy populations . PCR reactions were run using genomic DNA isolated from fish euthanized with buffered MS222 (Sigma® A5040) or from specimens preserved in 95% ethanol.
Initially, PCR and sequence data were obtained using primers ForBeg, Fw1a and Rev5, which are complementary to conserved regions of fish LWS opsin genes in exon I (ForBeg), exon II (Fw1a), and exon V (Rev5) (see Additional files 1 and 2). After uncovering multiple LWS opsin sequences in Poecilia, we attempted to PCR-amplify DNA between guppy opsin genes. The between-gene PCR experiment was initiated because LWS opsins occur in tandem in human, zebrafish, and medaka. It employed the reverse complement of a forward primer close to the 5' end of the gene (Fw1a Comp) and the reverse complement of a reverse primer close to the 3' end of the gene (Rev8 Comp). Sequence data from amplicons derived from primers ForBeg, Fw1a and Rev5, and the success of between-gene PCR allowed us to develop gene-specific primers, including reverse primers complementary to 3' UTR sequences. Primers complementary only to guppy LWS 'variant 6' were designed from sequence data recently published by Weadick and Chang . PCR amplicons were cut and purified from agarose gels using a QIAquick® Gel Extraction Kit and were cloned using the pGEM® – T Easy Vector System II kit (Promega™). Sequencing of insert-positive clones utilized labeled M13 forward and reverse primers and a LI-COR sequencer at the Centre for Biomedical Research at the University of Victoria. A list of PCR primer sequences, PCR reaction conditions and a primer map can be found in Additional file 1, Additional file 2, and Additional file 3, respectively.
Southern Blot Hybridization
DNA from one lab-reared Cumaná guppy was extracted using a Qiagen® DNeasy Tissue Kit and digested with the four-cutter restriction enzyme BfaI (New England Biolabs®). 423 bp DIG labeled probes were prepared from guppy genomic DNA using the PCR DIG Probe Synthesis Kit (Roche®) and primers Fw100 and Rev4 (see Additional file 1). The amplicons from this PCR reactions were purified using the QIAquick® Gel Extraction Kit (Qiagen®). BfaI does not cut any of the LWS opsins in the region complementary to the probes. Southern blot hybridization was carried out using a modified protocol from the Roche® DIG application manual for filter hybridization. Digested DNA was blotted onto a Bio-Rad™ Zeta-Probe® Blotting membrane using the Bio-Rad™ Model 785 Vacuum Blotter. This was followed by UV exposure (120 mJ) and probe hybridization at 40°C overnight. The blot was washed in 2× SSC at room temperature and then in 1× SSC at 65°C and visualized using the DIG Luminescent Detection Kit for Nucleic Acids (Roche®).
LWS opsin gene expression using RT-PCR
Prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR) experiments (see below) we tested the hypothesis that all four LWS opsin loci were expressed using reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Three guppies were euthanized in buffered MS222. A single eye from each individual was placed in 1.0 mL PureZOL™ (Bio-Rad®) with 3 mm tungsten carbide beads and homogenized for five minutes in a Retsch MM301 Mixer Mill. Total RNA was extracted using the Aurum™ Total RNA Fatty and Fibrous Tissue kit from BioRad®. The iScript™ kit (Bio-Rad®) was used to generate single-stranded cDNA. LWS opsin transcripts were PCR amplified and cloned using the pGEM® – T Easy Vector System II kit (Promega™) and then sequenced with labeled M13 primers. Primers reported by Meyer and Lydeard  that amplify XSrc were used as a positive control. Primer sequences and PCR conditions can be found in Additional files 1 and 2.
Key-site haplotypes for LWS opsin duplicates in fish and humans.
Key Site Position
Guppy LWS S180
Guppy LWS A180
Guppy LWS P180
Guppy LWS S180r
Killifish LWS A
Killifish LWS B
Rice fish LWS A
Rice fish LWS B
Zebrafish LWS 1
Zebrafish LWS 2
Cave fish LWS g101
Cave fish LWS g103
Expected λmax (nm)
The Tetraodon nigroviridis LWS opsin amino acid sequence AAT38457.1 was employed as a query sequence in a BLASTp search  to identify homologs in the NCBI nr database. All hits with bitscores > 300 were aligned with one another and with the new data using the MPI version of ClustalW [33, 34]. Subsequent sequence manipulations including multiple sequence alignments, toggle translations, hand editing, and delimitation of intron/exon boundaries utilized BioEdit v.18.104.22.168. . A short nucleotide multiple sequence alignment (390 bp) that included coding sequences from exons IV and V was used to determine relationships among our new guppy LWS opsin genes and those from guppies of the Oropuche and Quare Rivers in Trinidad reported by Hoffmann et al. : OR6-4 D09/DQ168660.1 and OR6-3 EO8/DQ168659.1 and QUEm5 LO6/DQ168661.1, and from the Paria River (Trinidad) guppy reported by Weadick and Chang : DQ865167.1, DQ865168.1, DQ865169.1, DQ865170.1, DQ865171.1, and DQ865172.1. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Neighbor-joining (NJ) trees , which were based upon Tamura-Nei  distance estimates were reconstructed using MEGA v.4 . Both analyses utilized all codon positions. Support for nodes was assessed using 1,000 bootstrap reiterations.
The MP and NJ analyses were repeated using an alignment of nucleotide sequences that varied in length from 619 to 1095 bp. LWS opsin sequences in this analysis included the following species and acquisition numbers: Zebrafish (Danio rerio), AB087803.1 and AB087804.1; Medaka (Oryzias latipes) AB223051.1 and AB223052.1; Bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) AY296740.1 and AY296741.1; Blind cave fish (Astyanax mexicanus) M90075.1, U12024.1, and U12025.1; Sea chub (Girella punctata) AB158261.1; Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) AF247128.1; Fugu (Takifugu rubripes) AY598942.1; Spotted green pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) AY598943.1; Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) AF385826.1; Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) AY631039.1; Goldfish (Carassius auratus) L11867.1; Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) AY214145.1; Ayu smelt (Plecoglossus altivelis), AB098702.1 and AB107771.1; Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) AF316498.1; Carp (Cyprinus carpio) AB055656.1; human (Homo sapiens) NM_020061.3 and NM_000513.1; Arctic lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum) AB116381.1; and our new sequences from the Cumaná guppy (Poecilia reticulata), Picta or 'swamp guppy' (Poecilia picta), Parae (Poecilia parae), Bifurca (Poecilia bifurca), the Pygmy swordtail (Xiphophorus pygmaeus) and Tomeurus (Tomeurus gracilis).
Hybrid or mosaic sequences
A large number of LWS opsin-like sequences (up to 17 per guppy) were uncovered after cloning and sequencing the products of PCR reactions utilizing primers Fw1a and Rev5. These sequences included suspected recombinants, that is, sequences that could have been generated by the ordered concatenation of fragments of other sequences produced in the same PCR reaction. Template switching during PCR and/or mismatch repair of cloned heteroduplex molecules has been shown to generate such artefacts [39–42]. To test the hypothesis that PCR and cloning could generate LWS opsin sequences not found in the guppy genome, we used primers Fw1a and Rev5 to re-amplify DNA from a two-sequence template (i.e., two insert-bearing plasmids). Five different sequences were uncovered from the two-template PCR reaction; one copy of each of the two templates and three recombinant sequences. These two-template experiments confirmed speculation by Hoffmann et al.  and Weadick and Chang  that LWS opsin genes in poeciliids are susceptible to PCR and/or cloning artefacts that generate artificial hybrid sequences.
To determine the minimum number of genuine LWS opsin sequences in our dataset we first considered variation at polymorphic positions. Two sequences (e.g., from two different loci or from two alleles at one locus) could serve as a PCR template for the generation of an enormous diversity of hybrid sequences via template switching or mismatch repair. However, among such a set of hybrid sequences there would be only two variants (substitutions or indels) at a given polymorphic site. LWS opsin sequences derived from individual fish using primers Fw1a and Rev5 included three different intron II haplotypes and a position in exon III that was polymorphic for three different nucleotides. Remarkably, this exon III variation translated into amino acid variation at position 180; the first of the five sites known to influence spectral sensitivity (see below). Gene duplication is the only explanation for the occurrence of three haplotypes in a single individual. We set out to strengthen this evidence for LWS opsin gene duplication by amplifying DNA between the genes (see next section).
Between-gene PCR and sequencing
PCR using primers designed to amplify between-gene DNA (Fw1a Comp and Rev8 Comp) produced a ~4 Kbp product in the guppy and in the three species of the guppy sister group Micropoecilia (P. picta, P. parae, and P. bifurca). These amplicons were cloned in three of these four species (cloning of this amplicon was unsuccessful in P. bifurca) and approximately 1500 bp were sequenced from each end of the clone insert. Each end of the insert contained the last intron and exon of an LWS opsin gene and approximately 790 bp beyond the stop codon. The explanation for this sequence pattern, confirmed by subsequent PCR experiments using only Rev8 Comp, was that this fragment was amplified with Rev8 Comp acting as a forward and a reverse primer and that it contained the ends of two LWS loci oriented in an inverted (tail-to-tail) fashion. The between-gene fragment did not amplify from X. pygmaeus or T. gracilis. In the guppy, additional primers were designed and the entire intergenic sequence was characterized. It was 3329 bp long, 66% A/T, and contained a short compound microsatellite; (TGGA)10(TA)9.
LWS opsins in the family Poeciliidae
Given the evidence for the artificial generation of opsin sequence variation during PCR or cloning, and the observation that artefacts produced by template switching and/or mismatch repair do not appear to be reproducible [41, 43], only haplotypes recovered from multiple independent PCR and cloning experiments were assumed to represent genuine opsin sequences. Additional primers were designed from these reliable sequences and from the sequences obtained by the between-gene PCR experiments described above (see Additional file 3).
Initially, three different LWS opsin sequences were identified in guppy (P. reticulata). These three genes were delimited by variation at codon 180: TCT (serine), GCT (alanine), and CCT (proline), and by unique intron II and intron V mutations. Codon 180 is one of the five key positions that influence wavelength sensitivity  and the variation uncovered here is reflected in the names we have given to each of the loci; LWS S180 (S for serine), LWS A180 (A for alanine), and LWS P180 (P for proline).
Long portions of the four LWS genes found in the guppy were also amplified and sequenced from P. picta and P. bifurca. Three of these opsins, LWS S180, LWS S180r, and LWS P180, were sequenced from P. parae. We did not obtain the 3' end of LWS A180 from any of these three species. Therefore the mutation producing the hybrid sequence consistently recovered from Cumaná guppy cannot yet be mapped onto the poeciliid phylogeny. Xiphophorus pygmaeus had three LWS opsin genes: LWS S180, LWS S180r, and LWS P180. Only one LWS opsin sequence (LWS S180) was recovered from Tomeurus gracilis. All sequences have been deposited in GenBank under accession numbers EU329428 – EU329486 (see Additional file 2).
Phylogenetic analysis of LWS opsin gene duplication in Poeciliidae
The guppy LWS opsin sequences obtained here and those reported by Hoffman et al.  were added to the 390 bp alignment reported by Weadick and Chang . Phylogenetic analyses sorted these guppy LWS opsins into three well-supported clades; LWS S180r, LWS P180 and LWS S180 plus LWS A180. Weadick and Chang's  variant 6 clustered with the single exon gene LWS S180r, and variant 5 clustered with the LWS P180 gene. This last result was anticipated before phylogenetic reconstruction because both sequences encode a phenylalanine at position 277 and an alanine at position 285. The remaining guppy LWS opsin genes; variants 1–4 from Weadick and Chang , the three LWS opsins from Hoffman et al.  (LWS_OR6-4_D09, LWS_OR6-3_E08, LWS_QUEm5_L06) and our LWS S180 and LWS A180 genes, formed the third clade. Over this 390 bp alignment, these genes are almost identical (mean percent identity = 98.6%). We suspect that the Weadick and Chang  variants 1–4 and the three Hoffman et al.  LWS genes include alleles at the LWS A180 and LWS S180 loci. This guppy-only LWS opsin sequence comparison also revealed that Weadick and Chang's  variant 5 is a recombinant or mosaic sequence; the first 221 bp are identical to variant 4, and the last 170 bp are identical to our LWS P180 sequence. In our phylogenic analysis, this gene occurred in the LWS P180 clade because the region where it is identical to variant 4 has few phylogenetically informative characters.
The MP tree indicates that the guppy LWS opsin repertoire is a consequence of gene duplication events that occurred i) prior to the divergence of families Fundulidae and Poeciliidae, ii) in the common ancestor of Xiphophorus and Poecilia, and iii) within the genus Poecilia. Mechanisms of LWS opsin gene duplication include retrotransposition (producing LWS S180r) and inverted tandem duplication (producing the gene pair, LWS S180 and LWS P180). Formation of the hybrid LWS A180 locus may have involved quasipalindrome correction . These three duplication events have provided species in this genus with a larger repertoire of LWS opsin pigments than any other fish taxon.
LWS gene evolution in teleosts
Relationships among higher taxonomic groups were well resolved in the tree reconstructed from LWS opsin sequences. There is high (>75%) bootstrap support for monophyly of Cyprinidontiformes (the bluefin killifish and all poeciliids), Pleuronectiformes (sea chub, turbot and flounder), Percomorpha, and the family Cyprinidae (goldfish, carp and zebrafish). One of the blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus) LWS genes (R007) is the sister sequence to those from goldfish, carp and zebrafish, which is not surprising as all species are in the taxon Ostariophysi. However, there were also two cavefish LWS genes at the base of the actinopterygian clade (G101 and G103). These genes might be derived from a gene produced during the fish-specific whole genome duplication event . Long Branch Attraction (LBA) occurs when rapidly evolving sequences are attracted to the base of a tree  and is an alternative explanation for the position of the cavefish duplicates in our analysis. However, LBA is an artefact that is usually correlated with poor taxonomic sampling, which is not the case here.
Among LWS sequences available for all ray-finned fishes, there is much variation at the five sites that influence spectral sensitivity most (see Additional file 4). Three different amino acids were observed at position 180 (A, S, or P), two at position 277 (Y or F), and two at position 285 (T or A). SHYTA is believed to be the ancestral five-site haplotype for vertebrates . Serine to alanine substitutions at position 180 are common, but only guppies, turbot, and the spotted green pufferfish have a proline in this position. Lamprey, though not a ray-finned fish, also has a proline at position 180. Amino acid variation at positions 197 and 308 are also known to influence spectral sensitivity, however, all ray-finned fish surveyed to date possess only H197 and A308. LWS opsins have been duplicated at least six times in ray-finned fishes; twice within Poeciliidae, once prior to the divergence of Fundulidae and Poeciliidae, once in medaka (Oryzias latipes), once in zebrafish (Danio rerio), and again in the blind cave fish (Astyanax mexicanus). Only in poeciliids and zebrafish (and humans), has the duplication been followed by a substitution at one or more of the key sites (Table 1).
LWS opsin gene expression
Quantitative PCR data.
Original Copy Number
Standard curve log fit values for quantitative PCR.
(Plasmid) Standard Curve
Y = -3.315(logX) + 37.05
Y = -2.992(logX) + 35.77
Y = -3.670(logX) + 38.96
Y = -3.319(logX) + 36.68
Variation at key sites among LWS opsin gene duplicates in Poeciliidae
The guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and species in its sister group Micropoecilia possess four LWS opsin genes that we have named LWS S180, LWS S180r, LWS A180, and LWS P180. The first two genes encode proteins with the five key-site haplotype, SHYTA, and the second two genes encode proteins with key-site haplotypes, AHYTA and PHFAA, respectively. Three of these genes; LWS S180, LWS S180r, and LWS P180, were also amplified and sequenced from pygmy swordtail (Xiphophorus pygmaeus) genomic DNA. We found only the LWS S180 gene in Tomerus gracilis. Serine (S) and alanine (A) are common residues at position 180, but proline (P) is rare. This proline residue encoded by LWS P180 might disrupt the transmembrane domain [47, 48] and compromise opsin protein function [48, 49]. However, several observations suggest that it is functional. First, LWS P180 is at least 44 million years old, as it evolved before the divergence of Poecilia and Xiphophorus , and it has no other amino acid substitutions that are expected to disrupt function. Second, the LWS P180 locus has diverged from paralogous LWS opsins in ways that are expected to enhance color vision; positions 277 and 285 have experienced a tyrosine to phenylalanine and threonine to alanine substitution, respectively. These are the same key-site substitutions involved in the evolution of an MWS opsin from an LWS opsin in humans. Third, this gene is expressed, albeit at very low levels. Finally, LWS opsins from arctic lamprey, turbot, and the spotted green pufferfish also have a proline at position 180 and no other substitutions likely to disrupt protein function.
All four LWS opsins uncovered in this study are predicted to have unique roles in color vision. With three different five key-site haplotypes, they are predicted to be most sensitive to three different wavelengths of light. Also, despite encoding a gene with the same key-site haplotype as LWS S180, the LWS S180r opsin differs from all other LWS opsins at amino acid positions known to play a role in binding and activating transducin .
Southern blot experiments in our study revealed four bands (Fig. 1) consistent with the hypothesis that Cumaná guppies have four LWS opsin loci. Hoffman et al.  produced a southern blot with only three bands and suggested that guppies have a minimum of two LWS opsin genes. Variation in LWS opsin gene number among populations may be another trait guppies share with humans [50–52].
Two of the four LWS opsin genes described here (LWS S180 and LWS A180) were reported in Hoffman et al.'s  study of guppies from the Quare and Oropuche Rivers in Trinidad. Although sequence data reported by Weadick and Chang  did not include all five key sites, our phylogenetic analysis indicates that Weadick and Chang  sequenced portions of all four loci from their Paria River guppy. The phylogenetic relationships among guppy LWS opsin paralogs reported by Weadick and Chang  differ from those shown here. Both topologies were produced using maximum parsimony, but by surveying more individuals, more species and by obtaining longer sequences we have produced a larger set of parsimony-informative characters. This is most evident when considering the relationship between LWS P180 and Weadick and Chang's variant 5, and variant 4. The large number of differences between variant 5 and variant 4 are apparent in Weadick and Chang's  tree where maximum likelihood branch lengths have been superimposed on the MP topology. Nonetheless, in their analysis, these two sequences form a monophyletic group. However, the sister sequence relationship between variant 5 and variant 4 disappears with the addition of LWS P180 genes from other Poecilia species and Xiphophorus pygmaeus because many of the unique nucleotides (autopomorphies) in variant 5 become synapomorphies (shared derived traits) in this larger dataset. Also, two of the three characters that had united variant 5 and variant 4 in Weadick and Chang's  MP analysis (adenines at positions 126 and 213 in their alignment), appear to be homoplasious when compared to a much larger set of LWS P180 and LWS S180 sequences. The origin of these apparent homoplasies is intriguing and is discussed below.
Mechanisms of LWS duplication in poeciliids
The first duplication event that expanded the guppy LWS opsin repertoire produced two genes that have retained SHYTA five key-site haplotype: LWS S180 and LWS S180r. The later duplicate is missing introns II-V and is likely a product of retrotransposition. Partial cDNA sequences for each gene have been reported  but their intron-exon structure was unknown until now. It is not clear how LWS S180r has retained retinal expression, although it may occur in the vicinity of other LWS opsins (and their regulatory modules) in the guppy genome. Of interest, gene duplication by retrotransposition has also produced a pair of fish rhodopsin 1 (RH1) genes called errlo and single-exon rho . errlo and rho occur on different chromosomes. Therefore, the observation that rho is expressed in the retina (rod cells)  demonstrates that upstream regulatory elements can be retained during retrotransposition.
In medaka (Oryzias latipes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), duplicated LWS opsins are linked and oriented in a head-to-tail manner [54, 55]. Phylogenetic analysis shows that independent mutations produced these gene pairs . Our study also characterized an LWS opsin tandem duplication event. Duplication of the LWS S180 gene early during the evolution of poeciliids, produced an LWS opsin that retained the SHYTA haplotype (LWS S180) and an LWS opsin that evolved a PHFAA haplotype (LWS P180). These two genes are linked, but in an inverted (i.e., tail-to-tail) orientation. Several models have been proposed to explain the formation of inverted duplicates. Secondary rearrangement after duplication by unequal sister chromatid exchange is one. Another is intra-chromosomal replication slippage in trans . This occurs when the DNA polymerase reverses direction using either the nascent strand (intra-molecular strand switch) or opposite strand (inter-molecular strand switch) as a template. By running backwards, a duplicate of the just-completed sequence is produced in an inverted orientation before the polymerase switches back to the correct template. The DNA downstream of LWS S180 has strings of adenines and thymines (data not shown) that might have facilitated strand switching by the polymerase during DNA replication . The inverted arrangement of LWS opsins in the Poecilia genome might make them even more prone to additional duplication events . Therefore, variation in LWS gene number (among species or populations) would not be surprising. Xiphophorus pygmaeus also has the LWS P180 gene. Post-duplication gene transposition or the expansion of intergenic DNA are possible explanations for our failure to amplify DNA between LWS P180 and LWS S180 in this species.
The third and most recent LWS gene duplication uncovered in our study lead to the production of LWS S180 and LWS A180. In the Cumaná guppy, the first five exons and four introns of LWS A180 are most similar to LWS S180, and the last intron, exon, and 3' UTR are identical to LWS P180. These data suggest that in this population LWS A180 is a hybrid gene; its formation might have been facilitated by the inverted tandem orientation of LWS S180 and LWS P180 . As mentioned above, variant 5, reported by Weadick and Chang  is also a hybrid sequence, with approximately one half of the sequence identical to the LWS S180 gene and the other half identical to LWS P180. As is the case for LWS A180 reported here in the Cumaná guppy, the position of variant 5 in the tree based upon the 390 bp alignment depends upon which fragments are used in the phylogenetic analysis (i.e., it would occur in the LWS S180/A180 clade if only the first 220 bp were utilized). As there are many more phylogenetically informative characters in the second half of this sequence, variant 5 was placed in the LWS P180 clade when the entire sequence was used, despite being identical to LWS A180 sequences over the first 220 bp. The observation that variant 5 has not diverged from either of its progenitor sequences and that it was recovered only once by Weadick and Chang  leads us to the conclusion that while both halves of the sequence can be found in the guppy genome, their concatenation is an artefact produced by template switching or mismatch repair during cloning.
In the larger alignment (Fig. 2), LWS S180 and LWS A180 are not partitioned into monophyletic clades. For instance, the P. bifurca sequence that clusters with the LWS S180 genes has an alanine at position 180. One explanation for this observation is that the P. bifurca LWS A180 sequence is an allele of the LWS S180 locus. A similar situation occurs in non-African humans where a common allele of the LWS opsin locus (which typically has the SHYTA haplotype) has an alanine in position 180 and thus, an AHYTA five key-site haplotype [59, 60].
The evolutionary consequences of LWS opsin duplication in guppies
The evolutionary implications of opsin gene duplication and divergence depend largely upon the expression patterns of these genes. In several species, the possession of a large opsin family allows the retina to be spectrally tuned for different environments and/or life stages. For example, eels (Anguilla anguilla) have two rhodopsins, each tuned to slightly different wavelengths. They express a green-shifted locus as juveniles in fresh water and a paralogous blue-shifted locus when they return to the ocean and mature . The lamprey (G. australis) also adjusts its spectral sensitivity by changing opsin gene expression as it moves between marine and riverine environments . In cichlids, opsin gene expression varies during development . Of particular note is the observation that variation in LWS opsin sequence and expression is associated with variation in water turbidity [9, 64]. This has lead to the hypothesis that species- and population-level differences in opsin gene sequence and expression represent adaptations for foraging in either turbid or clear water and that these differences in spectral sensitivity may drive and/or maintain divergence in male coloration via sexual selection . Guppies, however, do not move very far during their lifetime  and thus differential use of opsin gene duplicates in different habitats is an unlikely explanation for the evolution of LWS opsin gene diversity in this taxon.
The simultaneous expression of opsin paralogs with different sensitivities might expand the region of the spectrum where the guppy possesses high sensitivity and expand the range of detectable wavelengths. This enhancement and broadening of wavelength sensitivity can occur when individual cone cells express more than one opsin gene  or when adjacent cone cells express different opsins (e.g., humans and transgenic mice – see below). MSP data in guppies showing cells with a broad range of sensitivities in the long wave region of the spectrum [18, 19] are consistent with the hypothesis that the sensitivity of some cones is a consequence of the co-expression of different LWS opsins. By providing guppies with a broad region of maximum wavelength sensitivity, LWS opsin gene duplication and divergence might make multi-colored male guppies appear brighter (more conspicuous)  to other guppies, but not to predators with wavelength sensitivity limited (by LWS opsin gene copy number) to a narrower region of the spectrum.
Expression of different LWS opsins in adjacent cones not only improves overall spectral sensitivity, but is the basis of wavelength discrimination. Observations from humans and mice are consistent with the hypothesis that opsin gene duplication and divergence can lead to better color discrimination even without any associated revisions to neuroanatomy. Among human women who are heterozygous at either the LWS or MWS locus, some appear to have a pattern of X-inactivation that leads to tetrachromacy. These women see an average of 10 colors in a spectrum, whereas trichromatic women typically see seven [, but see reference ]. In mice, the hypothesis that extra opsin genes can improve wavelength discrimination was supported by data from females expressing an SWS opsin and two LWS opsins (an endogenous LWS gene on one X chromosome and a human LWS opsin on the other). These knock-in mice performed better in wavelength discrimination tests than wild-type mice with a single LWS gene .
Sexual selection in guppies favors males with more red, orange, and yellow color patches [71–73] suggesting that females use color diversity (chroma) to evaluate males. This may be because males with more chroma are more conspicuous . However, the 'extra' chroma is a consequence of the guppy visual system and this conspicuousness may not, therefore, apply to predators. Finally, if LWS opsin gene duplication improves motion detection, as proposed by White et al.  then female guppies might also be 'pre-adapted' to evaluate the well-characterized sigmoid display, a behavior that consists of the male arching its body into a S-shape and oscillating the long axis of the body both horizontally and vertically .
LWS expression in the guppy
Gene expression data will help us to test alternative hypotheses about the adaptive value of LWS opsin diversity. To expand the range of maximum sensitivity and enhance wavelength discrimination, it is necessary that different opsins be expressed at the same time. All four LWS opsin gene transcripts were amplified from cDNA derived from adult eyes in our lab and by Weadick and Chang . However, our qPCR experiments on three adults (1 male, 2 females) showed that most of the LWS opsin mRNA in the Cumaná guppy retinas was derived from the LWS A180 gene. Human SWS (blue) cone cells make up only 15% of the retina cone cell repertoire, yet play an important role in wavelength discrimination. Therefore, qPCR data showing unequal expression among LWS opsin paralogs in three adults do not rule out a role for LWS opsin gene duplication and divergence in wavelength discrimination in guppies, but does indicate the need for further investigation. We are currently using qPCR to examine LWS expression in a larger sample of adults and in fish at different stages of development. Finally, duplicated opsins are sometimes expressed in different regions of the retina [55, 76]. In-situ hybridization experiments are underway to test the hypothesis that different LWS opsin paralogs have unique expression domains within the guppy retina, as is the case in zebrafish .
Gene duplication and divergence has provided Poecilia and its close relatives with four distinct LWS opsins; a larger repertoire than any other fish. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that three of these LWS opsins (LWS S180r, LWS P180 and LWS S180) were present very early in poeciliid evolution and are predicted to occur in all of the approximately 239 species of the subfamily Poeciliinae. Adult guppies express all four LWS paralogs simultaneously, albeit at varying levels. As a consequence of these gene duplications, the potential for a broad region of high sensitivity and/or enhanced wavelength discrimination in the long-wave portion of the visible spectrum, may have facilitated a red-orange color bias for sexual selection within the guppy.
The authors thank Roderick Haesevoets for help with DNA sequencing, Shelby Temple and two anonymous referees for comments on the manuscript and Gustavo Ybazeta for help with the phylogenetic analysis. The Environmental Protection Agency of Guyana, Ministry of Agriculture of Guyana, and Animal Husbandry and Fisheries of Suriname provided research and collecting permits. Fish were collected in Venezuela in collaboration with D. Taphorn of UNELLEZ (permit no. 0497). This work was funded by grants from the Canadian Foundation for Innovation and the British Columbia Knowledge Development Fund (JST), Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (JST and FB) and the National Geographic Society (FB).
- Andersson M: Sexual Selection. 1994, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 599-
- Breden F, Stoner G: Male predation risk determines female preference in the Trinidad guppy. Nature. 1987, 329: 831-33. 10.1038/329831a0.View Article
- Bakker TCM: Positive genetic correlation between female preference and preferred male ornament in sticklebacks. Nature. 1993, 363: 255-57. 10.1038/363255a0.View Article
- Houde A: Sex, Color, and Mate Choice in Guppies. 1997, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 210-
- Haesler MP, Seehausen O: Inheritance of female mating preference in a sympatric sibling species pair of Lake Victoria cichlids: implications for speciation. Proc R Soc B. 2005, 272: 237-45. 10.1098/rspb.2004.2946.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Salzburger W, Niederstätter H, Brandstätter A, Berger B, Parson W, Snoeks J, Sturmbauer C: Color-assortative mating among populations of Tropheus moorii, a cichlid fish from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Proc R Soc B. 2006, 273: 257-66. 10.1098/rspb.2005.3321.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Streelman JT, Albertson RC, Kocher TD: Genome mapping of the orange blotch pattern in cichlid fishes. Mol Ecol. 2003, 12: 2465-71. 10.1046/j.1365-294X.2003.01920.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Terai Y, Mayer WE, Klein J, Tichy H, Okada N: The effect of selection on a long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin gene of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002, 99: 15501-06. 10.1073/pnas.232561099.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Terai Y, Seehausen O, Sasaki T, Takakashi K, Mizoiri S, Sugawara T, Sato T, Watanabe M, Konijnendijk N, Mrosso HDJ, Tachida H, Imai H, Schichida Y, Okada N: Divergent selection on opsins drives incipient speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids. PLoS Biol. 2006, 4: 2244-51. 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040433.View Article
- Carlton KL, Parry JWL, Bowmaker JK, Hunt DM, Seehausen O: Color vision and speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids of the genus Pundamilia. Mol Ecol. 2006, 14: 4341-53.View Article
- Maan ME, Hofker KD, van Alphen JJM, Seehausen O: Sensory drive in cichlid speciation. Am Nat. 2006, 167: 947-54. 10.1086/503532.View ArticlePubMed
- Masland RH: The fundamental plan of the retina. Nat Neurosci. 2001, 4: 877-86. 10.1038/nn0901-877.View ArticlePubMed
- Nathans J, Thomas D, Hogness DS: Molecular genetics of human color vision: The genes encoding blue, green, and red pigments. Science. 1986, 232: 193-232. 10.1126/science.2937147.View ArticlePubMed
- Dulai KS, von Dornum M, Mollon JD, Hunt DM: The evolution of trichromatic color vision by opsin gene duplication in New World and Old World primates. Genome Res. 1999, 9 (7): 629-38.PubMed
- Yokoyama S, Radlwimmer FB: The molecular genetics of red and green color vision in mammals. Genetics. 1999, 153 (2): 919-32.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Yokayama S, Radlwimmer FB: The molecular genetics and evolution of red and green color vision in vertebrates. Genetics. 2001, 158 (4): 1697-1710.
- Chinen A, Hamaoka T, Yamade Y, Kawamura S: Gene duplication and spectral diversification of cone visual pigments of Zebrafish. Genetics. 2003, 163 (2): 663-75.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Archer SN, Endler JA, Lythgoe JN, Partridge JC: Visual pigment polymorphism in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Vis Res. 1987, 27: 1243-52. 10.1016/0042-6989(87)90200-8.View ArticlePubMed
- Archer SN, Lythgoe JN: The visual pigment basis for cone polymorphism in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Vis Res. 1990, 30: 225-33. 10.1016/0042-6989(90)90038-M.View ArticlePubMed
- Bourne GR, Breden F, Allen TC: Females prefer carotenoid males as mates in the pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae. Naturwissenschaften. 2003, 90: 402-05. 10.1007/s00114-003-0444-1.View ArticlePubMed
- Endler JA: Natural selection on color patterns in Poecilia reticulata. Evol. 1980, 34: 76-91. 10.2307/2408316.View Article
- Körner KE, Schlupp I, Plath M, Loew ER: Spectral sensitivity of mollies: comparing surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies, Poecilia mexicana. J Fish Biol. 2006, 69: 54-65. 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2006.01056.x.View Article
- Hoffmann M, Tripathi N, Henz SR, Lindholm AK, Weigel D, Breden F, Dreyer C: Opsin gene duplication and diversification in the guppy, a model for sexual selection. Proc R Soc Lond B. 2007, 274: 33-42. 10.1098/rspb.2006.3707.View Article
- Weadick CJ, Chang BSW: Long-wavelength sensitive visual pigments of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata): six opsins expressed in a single individual. BMC Evol Biol. 2007, 7 (suppl 1): S1-S11. 10.1186/1471-2148-7-S1-S11.View Article
- Meyer A, Lydeard C: The evolution of copulatory organs, internal fertilization, placentae and viviparity in killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes) inferred from a DNA phylogeny of the tyrosine kinase gene X-src. Proc Biol Sci. 1993, 245: 153-62. 10.1098/rspb.1993.0140.View Article
- Hrbek T, Seckinger J, Meyer A: A phylogenetic and biogeographic perspective on the evolution of poeciliid fishes. Mol Phylogen Evol. 2007, 43: 986-98. 10.1016/j.ympev.2006.06.009.View Article
- Breden F, Ptacek MB, Rashed M, Taphorn D, Figueiredo CA: Molecular phylogeny of a live-bearing fish genus Poecilia (Poeciliidae: Cyprinodontiformes). Mol Phylogen Evol. 1999, 12: 95-104. 10.1006/mpev.1998.0600.View Article
- Rosen DE, Bailey RM: The poeciliid fishes (Cyprinodontiformes), their structure, zoogeography and systematics. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist. 1963, 126: 1-176.
- Alexander HJ, Breden F: Sexual isolation and extreme morphological divergence in the Cumaná guppy: a possible case of incipient speciation. J Evol Biol. 2004, 17: 1238-54. 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2004.00788.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Halstenberg S, Lindgren KM, Samagh SPS, Nadal-Vicens M, Balt S, Fernald RD: Diurnal rhythm of cone opsin expression in the teleost fish Haplochromis burtoni. Vis Neurosci. 2005, 22: 135-41. 10.1017/S0952523805222022.View ArticlePubMed
- Li P, Temple S, Gao Y, Haimberger TJ, Hawryshyn CW, Li L: Circadian rhythms of behavioral cone sensitivity and long wavelength opsin mRNA expression: a correlation study in zebrafish. J Exp Biol. 2005, 208: 497-504. 10.1242/jeb.01424.View ArticlePubMed
- Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ: Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol. 1990, 215 (3): 403-10.View ArticlePubMed
- Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ: ClustalW: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position- specific gap penalties, and weight matrix choice. Nuc Acids Res. 1994, 22: 4673-4780. 10.1093/nar/22.22.4673.View Article
- Li K-B: ClustalW-MPI: ClustalW analysis using distributed and parallel computing. Bioinfor. 2003, 19: 1585-86. 10.1093/bioinformatics/btg192.View Article
- Hall TA: BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucl Acids Symp Ser. 1999, 41: 95-98.
- Saitou N, Nei M: The neighbor-joining method: A new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol. 1987, 4 (4): 406-25.PubMed
- Tamura K, Nei M: Estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions in the control region of mitrochondrial DNA in humans and chimpanzees. Mol Biol Evol. 1993, 10 (3): 512-26.PubMed
- Kumar S, Tamura K, Nei M: MEGA4: Integrated software for Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis and sequence alignment. Briefings in Bioinfor. 2004, 5: 150-63. 10.1093/bib/5.2.150.View Article
- Saiki RK, Gelfand DH, Stoffel S, Scharf SJ, Higuchi R, Horn GT, Mullis KB, Erlich HA: Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science. 1988, 239: 487-91. 10.1126/science.2448875.View ArticlePubMed
- Oldenberg SJ, Weiss RB, Hata A, White R: Template-switching during DNA synthesis by Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I. Nuc Acids Res. 1995, 23: 2049-57. 10.1093/nar/23.11.2049.View Article
- Zylstra P, Rothenfluh HS, Weiller GF, Blanden RV, Steele EJ: PCR amplification of murine immunoglobulin germline V genes: strategies for minimization of recombination artifacts. Immun Cell Biol. 1998, 76: 395-405. 10.1046/j.1440-1711.1998.00772.x.View Article
- Shammas FV, Heikkilä R, Osland A: Fluorescence-based method for measuring and determining the mechanisms of recombination in quantitative PCR. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2001, 304: 19-28. 10.1016/S0009-8981(00)00374-0.View Article
- Cronn R, Cedroni M, Haselkorn T, Grover C, Wendel JF: PCR-mediated recombination in amplification products derived from polyploid cotton. Theor Appl Genet. 2002, 104: 482-89. 10.1007/s001220100741.View ArticlePubMed
- van Noort V, Worning P, Ussery DW, Rosche WA, Sinden RR: Strand misalignments lead to quasipalindrome correction. Trends Genet. 2003, 19: 365-69. 10.1016/S0168-9525(03)00136-7.View ArticlePubMed
- Taylor JS, Braasch I, Frickey T, Meyer A, Peer Van de Y: Genome duplication, a trait shared by 22,000 species of ray-fined fish. Genome Res. 2003, 13: 382-90. 10.1101/gr.640303.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Bergsten J: A review of long-branch attraction. Cladistics. 2005, 21: 163-93. 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2005.00059.x.View Article
- Pakula AA, Sauer RT: Genetic analysis of protein stability and function. Annu Rev Genet. 1989, 23: 289-310. 10.1146/annurev.ge.23.120189.001445.View ArticlePubMed
- Weitz CJ, Miyake Y, Shinzato K, Montag E, Zrenner E, Went LN, Nathans J: Human tritanopia associated with two amino acid substitutions in the blue-sensitive opsin. Am J Hum Genet. 1992, 50 (3): 498-507.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Gunther KL, Neitz J, Neitz M: A novel mutation in the short-wavelength-sensitive cone pigment gene associated with a tritan color vision defect. Vis Neurosci. 2006, 23: 403-09. 10.1017/S0952523806233169.View ArticlePubMed
- Jagla WM, Jägle H, Hayashi T, Sharpe LT, Deeb SS: The molecular basis of dichromatic vision in males with multiple red and green visual pigment genes. Hum Mol Genet. 2002, 11 (1): 23-32. 10.1093/hmg/11.1.23.View ArticlePubMed
- Macke JP, Nathans J: Individual variation in the size of the human red and green visual pigment gene array. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1997, 38 (5): 1040-43.PubMed
- Wolf S, Sharpe LT, Hans-Jûrgen AS, Knau H, Weitz S, Kioschis P, Poustka A, Zrenner E, Lichter P, Wissinger B: Direct visual resolution of gene copy number in the human photopigment gene array. Inv Ophtha & Vis Res. 1999, 40 (7): 1585-89.
- Bellingham J, Tarttelin EE, Foster RG, Wells DJ: Structure and evolution of the teleost extraretinal rod-like opsin (errlo) and ocular rod opsin (rho) genes: is teleost rho a retrogene?. J Exp Zool. 2003, 297(B): 1-10. 10.1002/jez.b.18.View Article
- Matsumoto Y, Fukamachi S, Mitani H, Kawamura S: Functional characterization of visual opsin repertoire in Medaka (Oryzias latipes). Gene. 2006, 371: 268-78. 10.1016/j.gene.2005.12.005.View ArticlePubMed
- Chinen A, Matsumoto Y, Kawamura S: Reconstruction of ancestral green visual pigments of zebrafish and molecular mechanism of their spectral differentiation. Mol Biol Evol. 2005, 22: 1001-10. 10.1093/molbev/msi086.View ArticlePubMed
- Chen J-M, Chuzhanova N, Stenson PD, Férec C, Cooper DN: Intrachromosomal serial replication slippage in trans gives rise to diverse genomic rearrangements involving inversion. Hum Mut. 2005, 26: 362-73. 10.1002/humu.20230.View ArticlePubMed
- Hyrien O, Debatisse M, Buttin G, de Saint Vincent BR: The multicopy appearance of a large inverted duplication and the sequence at the inversion joint suggests a new model for gene amplification. EMBO J. 1988, 7: 407-17.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Passananti C, Davies B, Ford M, Fried M: Structure of an inverted duplication formed as a first step in a gene amplification event: implications for a model of gene amplification. EMBO J. 1987, 6: 1697-1703.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Verrelli BC, Tishkoff SA: Signatures of selection and gene conversion associated with human color vision variation. Am J Hum Genet. 2004, 75: 363-75. 10.1086/423287.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMed
- Winderickx J, Battisti L, Hibiya Y, Motulski AG, Deeb SS: Haplotype diversity in the human red and green opsin genes: evidence for frequent sequence exchange in exon 3. Hum Mol Genetics. 1993, 2 (9): 1413-21. 10.1093/hmg/2.9.1413.View Article
- Archer S, Hope A, Partridge JC: The molecular basis for the green-blue sensitivity shift in the rod visual pigments of the European eel. Proc R Soc Lond B. 1995, 262: 289-95. 10.1098/rspb.1995.0208.View Article
- Davies WL, Cowing JA, Carvalho LS, Potter IC, Trezise AEO, Hunt DM, Collin SP: Functional characterization, tuning, and regulation of visual pigment gene expression in an anadromous lamprey. FASEB J. 2007, 21: 2713-24. 10.1096/fj.06-8057com.View ArticlePubMed
- Spady TC, Parry JWL, Robinson PR, Hunt DM, Bowmaker JK, Carleton KL: Evolution of the cichlid visual palette through ontogenetic subfunctionalization of the opsin gene arrays. Mol Biol Evol. 2006, 23 (8): 1538-47. 10.1093/molbev/msl014.View ArticlePubMed
- Carelton KL, Kocher TD: Cone opsin genes of African cichlid fishes: Tuning spectral sensitivity by differential gene expression. Mol Biol Evol. 2001, 18 (8): 1540-50.View Article
- Crispo E, Bentzen P, Reznick DN, Kinnison MT, Hendry AP: The relative influence of natural selection and geography on gene flow in guppies. Mol Ecol. 2006, 15: 49-62. 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02764.x.View ArticlePubMed
- Lukáts Á, Dkhissi-Benyahya O, Szepessy Z, Röhlich P, Vigh B, Bennett NC, Cooper HM, Szél Á: Visual pigment coexpression in all cones of two rodents, the Siberian hamster, and the pouched mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002, 43 (7): 2468-73.PubMed
- Endler JA: Variation in the appearance of guppy color patterns to guppies and their predators under different visual conditions. Vis Res. 1991, 31 (3): 587-608. 10.1016/0042-6989(91)90109-I.View ArticlePubMed
- Jameson KA, Highnote SM: Richer color experience in observers with multiple photopigment opsin genes. Psychon Bull & Rev. 2001, 8 (2): 244-61.View Article
- Hood SM, Mollon JD, Purves L, Jordan G: Color discrimination in carriers of color deficiency. Vis Res. 2006, 46: 2894-2900. 10.1016/j.visres.2006.02.028.View ArticlePubMed
- Jacobs GH, Williams GA, Cahill H, Nathans J: Emergence of novel color vision in mice engineered to express a human cone photopigment. Science. 2007, 315: 1723-25. 10.1126/science.1138838.View ArticlePubMed
- Endler JA: Natural and sexual selection on color patterns in poeciliid fishes. Env Biol Fish. 1983, 9: 173-90. 10.1007/BF00690861.View Article
- Houde AE: Mate choice based upon naturally occurring colour pattern variation in a guppy population. Evol. 1987, 41: 1-10. 10.2307/2408968.View Article
- Houde AE, Endler JA: Correlated evolution of female mating preferences and male colour patterns in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Science. 1990, 248: 1405-08. 10.1126/science.248.4961.1405.View ArticlePubMed
- White EM, Church SC, Willoughby LJ, Hudson SJ, Partridge JC: Spectral irradiance and foraging efficiency in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. An Beh. 2005, 69 (3): 519-27. 10.1016/j.anbehav.2004.05.011.View Article
- Luyten PH, Liley NR: Geographic variation in the sexual behavior of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters). Behav. 1985, 95: 164-79. 10.1163/156853985X00109.View Article
- Takechi M, Kawamura S: Temporal and spatial changes in the expression pattern of multiple red and green subtype opsin genes during zebrafish development. J Exp Biol. 2005, 208: 1337-45. 10.1242/jeb.01532.View ArticlePubMed
- Nei M, Kumar S: Molecular evolution and phylogenetics. 2000, New York: Oxford University Press
- Felsenstein J: Confidence limits on phylogenies: An approach using the bootstrap. Evol. 1985, 39: 783-91. 10.2307/2408678.View Article
- Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S: MEGA4: Molecular Evolution Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol. 2007, 24: 1596-99. 10.1093/molbev/msm092.View ArticlePubMed
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.