Phylogeny and divergence of the pinnipeds (Carnivora: Mammalia) assessed using a multigene dataset

  • Jeff W Higdon1,

    Affiliated with

    • Olaf RP Bininda-Emonds2Email author,

      Affiliated with

      • Robin MD Beck3 and

        Affiliated with

        • Steven H Ferguson4

          Affiliated with

          BMC Evolutionary Biology20088:216

          DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-216

          Received: 27 June 2008

          Accepted: 24 July 2008

          Published: 24 July 2008

           

          After publication of our article [1], we discovered that one of the programs used to date the supertree, relDate v2.2 [2], contained a bug that can lead to errors in the date estimates it provides. The precise effect of the bug is dependent on tree shape, but it generally results in overestimates of divergence-time estimates, particularly for nodes that are closer topologically to the tips of the tree. It can potentially, however, affect every date estimate on a tree.

          Fortunately, the impact of the bug on date estimates in the pinniped supertree was minimal. Only 14 of the 35 nodes were affected, with the mean and median absolute errors for the dates of these 14 nodes being 0.19 and 0.10 million years (= 8.9% and 6.1% relative to the corrected date). All but one error (that for node 14) were overestimates. The largest difference was 0.5 million years (for node 6), and the two sets of dates are perfectly correlated with one another (correlation coefficient = 1.000, Z = 28.508, P < 0.0001).

          Corrected dates and 95% confidence-interval dates for all nodes in the pinniped supertree can be found in Table 1 and should be used in place of those reported in the original publication [1]. We apologize for any inconvenience this error might cause.
          Table 1

          Published and corrected divergence dates for the world's pinnipeds as determined by the relDate method.

             

          Confidence-interval dates

          Node

          Published date

          Corrected date (SE)

          Lower

          Upper

          1

          43.4

          43.4

          43.4

          43.4

          2

          35.7

          35.7

          30.6

          40.9

          3

          23.0

          23.0

          20.3

          25.7

          4

          18.0

          18.0

          15.3

          20.7

          5

          8.2

          8.2

          6.0

          12.3

          6

          6.1

          5.6

          4.8

          6.5

          7

          5.2

          5.2

          4.0

          6.3

          8

          4.5

          4.4

          3.9

          5.4

          9

          4.3

          4.2

          3.7

          5.2

          10

          3.4

          3.3

          2.7

          5.1

          11

          3.2

          3.1

          2.4

          5.0

          12

          3.1

          3.0

          0.6

          4.9

          13

          1.1

          1.1

          0.5

          1.6

          14

          0.7

          0.8

          0.3

          0.8

          15

          0.1

          0.1

          0.2

          0.1

          16

          0.3

          0.3

          0.3

          0.3

          17

          4.5

          4.5

          3.5

          5.3

          18

          16.0

          16.0

          14.2

          17.8

          19

          13.0

          13.0

          11.2

          14.7

          20

          8.0

          7.9

          7.1

          8.7

          21

          6.4

          6.4

          5.6

          7.1

          22

          2.4

          2.1

          1.6

          2.9

          23

          2.2

          1.9

          1.4

          2.7

          24

          2.1

          1.8

          1.2

          2.3

          25

          2.0

          1.7

          1.1

          2.0

          26

          1.1

          0.9

          0.6

          1.3

          27

          4.3

          4.3

          3.3

          5.3

          28

          11.3

          11.3

          10.1

          12.5

          29

          10.0

          9.9

          8.7

          11.2

          30

          7.1

          7.1

          6.4

          7.7

          31

          6.8

          6.8

          6.3

          7.3

          32

          4.3

          4.3

          3.2

          5.4

          33

          2.3

          2.3

          0.6

          4.0

          34

          9.9

          9.9

          9.4

          10.5

          35

          4.9

          4.9

          4.4

          5.3

          Node numbers correspond to Figure 1 in Higdon et al. [1]; those where the dates have changed are listed in bold face. All dates (including 95% confidence-interval dates) are in millions of years ago.

          Authors’ Affiliations

          (1)
          Department of Geography, University of Manitoba, 501 University Crescent
          (2)
          AG Systematik und Evolutionsbiologie, IBU – Fakultät V, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg
          (3)
          School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales
          (4)
          Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent

          References

          1. Higdon JW, Bininda–Emonds ORP, Beck RM, Ferguson SH: Phylogeny and divergence of the pinnipeds (Carnivora: Mammalia) assessed using a multigene dataset. BMC Evol Biol 2007, 7: 216.View ArticlePubMed
          2. Bininda–Emonds ORP, Cardillo M, Jones KE, MacPhee RDE, Beck RMD, Grenyer R, Price SA, Vos RA, Gittleman JL, Purvis A: The delayed rise of present–day mammals. Nature 2007, 446: 507–512.View ArticlePubMed

          Copyright

          © Higdon et al. 2008

          This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​2.​0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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