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Table 1 Results from statistical analyses of different components of foot morphology.

From: Ontogenetic convergence and evolution of foot morphology in European cave salamanders (Family: Plethodontidae)

A) Foot Webbing SS MS df F P
Species 4.5358 0.64797 7 30.9142 < 0.0001
Foot Length 0.5388 0.53881 1 25.7061 < 0.0001
Species × Foot Length 0.4830 0.06900 7 3.2919 0.0022
B) Foot Shape Pillai's Trace Approx. F df num df den P
Species 1.84254 7.8341 98 2149 < 0.0001
Centroid Size 0.42077 15.6182 14 301 < 0.0001
Species × Centroid Size 0.46758 1.5696 98 2149 0.0004
  1. A) The relative degree of foot webbing as a function of species and foot length. B) Foot shape from landmark-based geometric morphometrics as a function of species and foot size (centroid size).