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Figure 1 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Figure 1

From: Unusual duplication of the insulin-like receptor in the crustacean Daphnia pulex

Figure 1

Daphnia pulex insulin and TOR signalling pathways, adapted from Drosophila melanogaster[39]. The D. pulex insulin/insulin-like growth factors signalling (IIS) comprises a group of insulin-like peptides (ILPs), four insulin receptors (InR1, InR2, InR3 and InR4) genes, an insulin receptor substrate (IRS), the type phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K p85/p60 and PI3K p110), the lipid phosphatase PTEN, the protein kinase PKB/AKT, the phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK-1) and the transcriptional factor FOXO. The TOR- pathway includes a TSC complex (TSC1 and TSC2), a small GTPase RHEB, the target of rapamycin (TOR), two S6 kinase (S6K1 and S6K2), the 4E-binding protein (4EBP) and the Pol I transcription factor TIF-1A. The AMPK-pathway involves the activation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) by the LKB1 protein kinase.

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