Multiple independent losses of PARP genes have taken place in the fungal lineage. A. Phylogeny of the fungi. The topology of the schematic tree is based on a recent higher order examination of the fungi . B. Simplified phylogeny of the Agarimycotina. This tree is based on that of . C. Simplified phylogeny of the Saccharomycotina, based on that of . Branch lengths are not proportional to genetic distance in any of the phylogenetic trees. Presence or absence of PARP proteins are indicated by a red + or a blue -, respectively. Groups in which some species have lost PARPs while others have retained them are indicated by a +/- symbol. For each species or group, PARP family members are listed with the clade numbers introduced in Figure 1. Accession numbers of the genes and details on the source of data for individual taxa is provided in Additional file 1 and Table 1. ND, no data.