Example taxa from Lamiales, showing representatives of desiccation-tolerant, parasitic, and carnivorous lineages, as well as members from families frequently referred to in the text. a: the desiccation-tolerant Craterostigma pumilum from Linderniaceae; b: the holoparasitic Orobanche gracilis from Orobanchaceae, a family that contains all hemi- and holoparasites from Lamiales; c: Pinguicula leptoceras from Lentibulariaceae, the largest family of carnivorous plants in angiosperms; d: Pinguicula filifolia, with a habit resembling Byblis; e: Byblis gigantea from Byblidaceae, another carnivorous lineage previously suspected to be the closest relative of Lentibulariaceae; f: Rhynchoglossum gardneri from Gesneriaceae and g Calceolaria andina from Calceolariaceae, two families inferred here as sister groups based on molecular data, alveolated seeds and pair-flowered cymes; h Prunella grandiflora (Lamiaceae), i: Verbena bonariensis (Verbenaceae); both families were long regarded as close relatives but are inferred as only distantly related (Figure 2). Photos: a: E.F.; c, d, e: A.F.; f: Nadja Korotkova; g: D.C.A.; b, h, i: K.F.M.