Optimal replacement size under different parameterizations of the pathogen environment. Simulations with age-dependent replacement type for the standard pathogen environment with different characteristics. A The parameters are the same as in our analysis above. The probability to survive until the reproductive age is ζ = 0.5 and the probability of infection pinf = 0.1. Hence, the calculated basic survival probability is psurv = 0.86. The optimal replacement size shifts to smaller values with smaller probability to survive until the reproductive age (B: ζ = 0.75, p
= 0.1 and therefore psurv = 0.94) and with higher probability of infection (C: ζ = 0.75, p
= 0.5 and therefore psurv = 0.99).