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Figure 3 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Figure 3

From: Reversal to air-driven sound production revealed by a molecular phylogeny of tongueless frogs, family Pipidae

Figure 3

Structure of larynx in Pseudhymenochirus and Hymenochirus . (a) Cleared and stained preparations of the larynx of Hymenochirus boettgeri and (b) of Pseudhymenochirus merlini in dorsal view, showing a generally lower extension of cartilaginous and calcified structures surrounding the larynx in Pseudhymenochirus. L, lungs; AL, alary processes of hyoid plate; AR, arytenoid cartilages; T, thyrohyals (= posteromedial processes of the hyoid plate). Schematic drawings represent main larynx structures in (c) Hymenochirus and (d) Pseudhymenochirus. Colors denote calcified (red) vs non-calcified cartilaginous (blue) structures. Note the calcified alary process in Pseudhymenochirus. Modified from Ridewood [38] and Cannatella and Trueb [29].

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