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Table 2 Comparison of log-likelihood differences between alternative topologies and results of KH and AU tests

From: From Antarctica or Asia? New colonization scenario for Australian-New Guinean narrow mouth toads suggested from the findings on a mysterious genus Gastrophrynoides

No Alternative topologies Reference Difference of log-likelihood value from ML tree and rejection of KH and AU tests
    ΔlnL KH AU
1 Topology of the ML tree from Aln-1 (-lnL = 77832.21) This study (= Fig. 1) 0.00 - -
Phrynomerinae (African taxon)     
2 2 nd basal position of Phrynomerinae (Kalophryninae is most basal) [1] 23.44 + +
3 Most basal of Phrynomerinae + Gastrophryninae clade [3] 8.11 - -
Hoplophryninae (African taxon)     
4 Hoplophryninae + (Cophylinae + Scaphiophryninae) clade [3] 4.80 - -
5 Hoplophryninae + Cophylinae clade [1] 7.88 - -
6 Hoplophryninae + Asterophryinae clade [3] 36.61 ++ ++
Cophylinae and Scaphiophryne (Madagascan taxa)     
7 3 rd basal position of Scaphiophryninae & Cophylinae + Kalophryninae clade [2] 19.72 + +
8 Scaphiophryninae + Microhylinae clade & Cophylinae + Hoplophryninae clade [1] 87.37 ++ ++
Gastrophryninae (American taxon)     
9 4 th basal position of Gastrophryninae [2] 19.72 + +
10 Gastrophryninae + (Cophylinae + Hoplophryninae) clade [1] 87.37 ++ ++
11 2 nd basal position of Gastrophryninae [3] 4.43 - -
Kalophryninae (Asian taxon)     
12 Most basal of Kalophryninae [1] 23.44 + +
13 Kalophryninae + Cophylinae clade [2] 19.72 + +
14 Kalophryninae+(Cophylinae + Scaphiophryninae) clade [3] 15.79 - -
Asterophryinae, Dyscophinae, & Microhylinae (Australian-New Guinean, Madagascan, Asian taxa)     
15 Asterophryinae + Dyscophinae clade & Microhylidae + Scaphiophryninae clade [1] 80.83 ++ ++
16 Microhylidae + Dyscophinae clade & (Asterophryinae + Kalophryninae) + Hoplophryninae clade [3] 44.43 ++ ++
Gastrophrynoides     
17 Gastrophrynoides + (Asterophryinae + (Dyscophinae + Microhylinae)) This study* 168.78 ++ ++
  1. ML and lnL refer maximum likelihood and log-likelihood value. ΔlnL indicates difference of log-likelihood value from that of the ML topology. For KH and AU tests, P > 0.05, < 0.05, and < 0.01 are shown by -, +, ++, respectively. *The Maximum likelihood tree under the constraint of "Gastrophrynoides is not monophyly with Asterophryinae".