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Table 3 Estimated divergence ages of microhylid taxa

From: From Antarctica or Asia? New colonization scenario for Australian-New Guinean narrow mouth toads suggested from the findings on a mysterious genus Gastrophrynoides

   Estimated divergence age (Ma) ± SD [Min - Max values of 95% confidence interval]
Node Divergence events Calibration A Calibration B Calibration C Calibration D Calibration E Calibration F Average (MD) of calibration A-F Van Bocxlaer et al.[2]*1 Van der Meijden et al.[3]
   (from the Aln-2d + Tree1a combination) (from the Aln-3d + Tree1b combination)    
I Split of microhylid lineage from other ranoids 143.2 ± 12.5 [121.6-170.3] 134.6 ± 15.6 [106.4-167.3] 130.0 ± 14.2 [103.8-159.3] 136.6 ± 10.3 [118.1-158.6] 133.0 ± 10.0 [115.3-154.4] 118.5 ± 11.5 [98.0-142.8] 132.6 (9.6) 127.3 ± 9.7 [109.9 - 147.9] 116 ± 17 [87 - 153]
II Initial divergence of living microhylid subfamilies (Split of Phrynomerinae) 90.3 ± 8.5 [77.6-110.6] 82.3 ± 11.8 [61.6-107.6] 78.9 ± 10.6 [59.9-101.4] 92.3 ± 7.1 [80.3-108.0] 89.3 ± 6.8 [78.0-104.5] 75.4 ± 9.3 [58.7-95.1] 84.8 (8.4) 88.0 ± 6.5 [77.0 - 102.2] 66 ± 11*3 [47 - 90]
III 2 nd basal split of microhylid subfamilies (Split of Hoplophryninae) 88.7 ± 8.4 [76.3-108.6] 80.7 ± 11.6 [60.3-105.7] 77.4 ± 10.5 [58.7-99.6] 87.7 ± 6.4 [77.1-102.1] 84.6 ± 6.1 [74.7-98.6] 70.9 ± 8.8 [55.1-89.6] 81.7 (8.2) 83.9 ± 5.9 [74.2 - 97.1] NS (57 - 66)*4
IV Split of Gastrophryninae + (Cophylinae + Scaphiophryninae) clade from other microhylids 85.8 ± 8.0 [74.2-105.1] 78.0 ± 11.3 [58.2-102.2] 74.8 ± 10.2 [56.6-96.4] 83.8 ± 5.8 [74.3-97.1] 80.8 ± 5.6 [72.0-93.8] 67.3 ± 8.5 [52.2-85.3] 78.4 (8.1) NA NA
V Split of Kalophryninae from Asterophryinae + (Dyscophinae + Microhylinae) clade 81.4 ± 7.7 [70.7-100.1] 73.9 ± 10.8 [54.8-97.1] 70.9 ± 9.8 [53.4-91.6] 81.8 ± 5.6 [72.7-94.5] 78.8 ± 5.3 [70.5-91.3] 65.3 ± 8.3 [50.5-83.0] 75.3 (7.9) 76.8 ± 5.0*2 [68.9 - 88.7] NA
VI Split of Asterophryinae from Dyscophinae + Microhylinae clade 76.6 ± 7.1 [67.2-94.2] 69.3 ± 10.3 [51.2-91.3] 66.5 ± 9.3 [49.9-86.2] 76.8 ± 5.0 [68.9-88.6] 73.9 ± 4.9 [66.9-85.7] 60.8 ± 7.9 [46.8-77.7] 70.6 (7.7) 73.6 ± 4.5 [66.7 - 84.5] 57 ± 10 [40 - 79]
VII Split of Dyscophinae and Microhylinae 73.6 ± 6.8 [65.3-90.7] 66.5 ± 10.0 [49.0-87.9] 63.7 ± 9.0 [47.7-83.0] 72.6 ± 4.4 [66.4-83.3] 69.7 ± 4.2 [65.1-80.6] 56.8 ± 7.5 [43.5-72.9] 67.2 (7.6) 68.7 ± 3.4 [65.1 - 77.6] 55 ± 10 [39 - 76]
VIII Split of Gastrophryninae from Cophylinae + Scaphiophryninae clade 83.9 ± 8.0 [72.1-103.0] 76.3 ± 11.1 [56.7-100.2] 73.1 ± 10.0 [55.1-94.3] 80.4 ± 6.0 [70.1-93.8] 77.6 ± 5.8 [67.8-90.7] 64.7 ± 8.3 [49.8-82.3] 76.0 (7.9) NA NA
IX Split of Cophylinae and Scaphiophryninae 72.1 ± 7.8 [59.8-90.0] 65.4 ± 10.1 [47.8-87.3] 62.7 ± 9.2 [46.4-82.3] 71.2 ± 6.8 [59.0-85.4] 68.9 ± 6.6 [57.1-83.0] 57.5 ± 8.1 [43.1-74.8] 66.3 (6.8) NA 53 ± 9 [38 - 74]
X Split of Gastrophrynoides from other asterophryines 53.7 ± 6.5 [43.1-68.5] 48.5 ± 8.2 [34.3-66.2] 46.5 ± 7.5 [33.4-62.6] 50.1 ± 5.5 [40.3-61.7] 48.4 ± 5.3 [39.0-59.8] 39.7 ± 6.3 [28.7-53.3] 47.8 (5.4) NA NA
XI Initial divergence of non- Gastrophrynoides asterophryines 22.7 ± 4.3 [15.5-32.3] 20.5 ± 4.6 [12.9-30.7] 19.7 ± 4.2 [12.6-29.1] 30.4 ± 4.3 [22.8-39.6] 29.4 ± 4.2 [22.0-38.6] 24.1 ± 4.5 [16.5-33.8] 24.5 (5.4) 26.8 ± 4.0 [19.8 - 35.3] 20 ± 5 [12 - 30]
  1. Node, roman numerals corresponding to Fig. 1. MD, mean difference. NA, not applicable. NS, not shown by the authors. *1They used two distinct dating methods and many distinct calibration point settings. The ages listed here were from the Bayesian molecular clock method and a calibration point setting (without point G) used as main result in their paper. *2Corresponding to the split age between Cophylinae + (Kalophryninae + Melanobatrachinae) clade and Asterophryinae + (Dyscophinae + Microhylinae) clade in [2]. *3Corresponding to the split age of Phrynomerinae + Gastrophryninae clade from other microhylids in [3]. *4Corresponding to the split of Otophryninae from other microhylids occurred between II and VI.