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Table 3 Estimated divergence ages of microhylid taxa

From: From Antarctica or Asia? New colonization scenario for Australian-New Guinean narrow mouth toads suggested from the findings on a mysterious genus Gastrophrynoides

   Estimated divergence age (Ma) ± SD [Min - Max values of 95% confidence interval]
Node Divergence events Calibration A Calibration B Calibration C Calibration D Calibration E Calibration F Average (MD) of calibration A-F Van Bocxlaer et al.[2]*1 Van der Meijden et al.[3]
   (from the Aln-2d + Tree1a combination) (from the Aln-3d + Tree1b combination)    
I Split of microhylid lineage from other ranoids 143.2 ± 12.5
[121.6-170.3]
134.6 ± 15.6
[106.4-167.3]
130.0 ± 14.2
[103.8-159.3]
136.6 ± 10.3
[118.1-158.6]
133.0 ± 10.0
[115.3-154.4]
118.5 ± 11.5
[98.0-142.8]
132.6 (9.6) 127.3 ± 9.7
[109.9 - 147.9]
116 ± 17
[87 - 153]
II Initial divergence of living microhylid subfamilies (Split of Phrynomerinae) 90.3 ± 8.5
[77.6-110.6]
82.3 ± 11.8
[61.6-107.6]
78.9 ± 10.6
[59.9-101.4]
92.3 ± 7.1
[80.3-108.0]
89.3 ± 6.8
[78.0-104.5]
75.4 ± 9.3
[58.7-95.1]
84.8 (8.4) 88.0 ± 6.5
[77.0 - 102.2]
66 ± 11*3
[47 - 90]
III 2 nd basal split of microhylid subfamilies (Split of Hoplophryninae) 88.7 ± 8.4
[76.3-108.6]
80.7 ± 11.6
[60.3-105.7]
77.4 ± 10.5
[58.7-99.6]
87.7 ± 6.4
[77.1-102.1]
84.6 ± 6.1
[74.7-98.6]
70.9 ± 8.8
[55.1-89.6]
81.7 (8.2) 83.9 ± 5.9
[74.2 - 97.1]
NS
(57 - 66)*4
IV Split of Gastrophryninae + (Cophylinae + Scaphiophryninae) clade from other microhylids 85.8 ± 8.0
[74.2-105.1]
78.0 ± 11.3
[58.2-102.2]
74.8 ± 10.2
[56.6-96.4]
83.8 ± 5.8
[74.3-97.1]
80.8 ± 5.6
[72.0-93.8]
67.3 ± 8.5
[52.2-85.3]
78.4 (8.1) NA NA
V Split of Kalophryninae from Asterophryinae + (Dyscophinae + Microhylinae) clade 81.4 ± 7.7
[70.7-100.1]
73.9 ± 10.8
[54.8-97.1]
70.9 ± 9.8
[53.4-91.6]
81.8 ± 5.6
[72.7-94.5]
78.8 ± 5.3
[70.5-91.3]
65.3 ± 8.3
[50.5-83.0]
75.3 (7.9) 76.8 ± 5.0*2
[68.9 - 88.7]
NA
VI Split of Asterophryinae from Dyscophinae + Microhylinae clade 76.6 ± 7.1
[67.2-94.2]
69.3 ± 10.3
[51.2-91.3]
66.5 ± 9.3
[49.9-86.2]
76.8 ± 5.0
[68.9-88.6]
73.9 ± 4.9
[66.9-85.7]
60.8 ± 7.9
[46.8-77.7]
70.6 (7.7) 73.6 ± 4.5
[66.7 - 84.5]
57 ± 10
[40 - 79]
VII Split of Dyscophinae and Microhylinae 73.6 ± 6.8
[65.3-90.7]
66.5 ± 10.0
[49.0-87.9]
63.7 ± 9.0
[47.7-83.0]
72.6 ± 4.4
[66.4-83.3]
69.7 ± 4.2
[65.1-80.6]
56.8 ± 7.5
[43.5-72.9]
67.2 (7.6) 68.7 ± 3.4
[65.1 - 77.6]
55 ± 10
[39 - 76]
VIII Split of Gastrophryninae from Cophylinae + Scaphiophryninae clade 83.9 ± 8.0
[72.1-103.0]
76.3 ± 11.1
[56.7-100.2]
73.1 ± 10.0
[55.1-94.3]
80.4 ± 6.0
[70.1-93.8]
77.6 ± 5.8
[67.8-90.7]
64.7 ± 8.3
[49.8-82.3]
76.0 (7.9) NA NA
IX Split of Cophylinae and Scaphiophryninae 72.1 ± 7.8
[59.8-90.0]
65.4 ± 10.1
[47.8-87.3]
62.7 ± 9.2
[46.4-82.3]
71.2 ± 6.8
[59.0-85.4]
68.9 ± 6.6
[57.1-83.0]
57.5 ± 8.1
[43.1-74.8]
66.3 (6.8) NA 53 ± 9
[38 - 74]
X Split of Gastrophrynoides from other asterophryines 53.7 ± 6.5
[43.1-68.5]
48.5 ± 8.2
[34.3-66.2]
46.5 ± 7.5
[33.4-62.6]
50.1 ± 5.5
[40.3-61.7]
48.4 ± 5.3
[39.0-59.8]
39.7 ± 6.3
[28.7-53.3]
47.8 (5.4) NA NA
XI Initial divergence of non- Gastrophrynoides asterophryines 22.7 ± 4.3
[15.5-32.3]
20.5 ± 4.6
[12.9-30.7]
19.7 ± 4.2
[12.6-29.1]
30.4 ± 4.3
[22.8-39.6]
29.4 ± 4.2
[22.0-38.6]
24.1 ± 4.5
[16.5-33.8]
24.5 (5.4) 26.8 ± 4.0
[19.8 - 35.3]
20 ± 5
[12 - 30]
  1. Node, roman numerals corresponding to Fig. 1. MD, mean difference. NA, not applicable. NS, not shown by the authors. *1They used two distinct dating methods and many distinct calibration point settings. The ages listed here were from the Bayesian molecular clock method and a calibration point setting (without point G) used as main result in their paper. *2Corresponding to the split age between Cophylinae + (Kalophryninae + Melanobatrachinae) clade and Asterophryinae + (Dyscophinae + Microhylinae) clade in [2]. *3Corresponding to the split age of Phrynomerinae + Gastrophryninae clade from other microhylids in [3]. *4Corresponding to the split of Otophryninae from other microhylids occurred between II and VI.