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Figure 3 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Figure 3

From: Annelid Distal-less/Dlx duplications reveal varied post-duplication fates

Figure 3

PlaDlxa and PlaDlxb expression during P. lamarckii development. Scale bars = 50 μm. The mouth (m) is indicated as a reference point. A. Early embryo, brightfield. PlaDlxa expression is higher in some cells, which seem to vary between individuals. B. Same embryo as A, DIC. The prototroch is apparent, therefore these Dlx positive cells are mid-lateral. C. Early embryo, brightfield. PlaDlxb is expressed in multiple cells. D. Same embryo as C, DIC. Prototroch and apical tuft are clear, therefore PlaDlxb expression is in both episphere and hyposphere. E. Early trochophore, lateral view focused on episphere. PlaDlxa is expressed in apical ectoderm and prototroch. F. Same larva as E, hyposphere in focus. PlaDlxa is also expressed in lateral ectoderm. G. Early trochophore, lateral view. No PlaDlxb expression is detected. H. Early trochophore, more developed than G. No PlaDlxb expression is detected. The small patch of colouration in the intestinal lumen is attributable to background staining. I. Complete trochophore, lateral view. PlaDlxa is expressed in ventral nerve cords, lateral ectoderm, and a band around the stomach (arrowhead). J. Same larva as I, different focal plane. PlaDlxa is expressed in the suboesophageal ganglion and apical organ. The broad band around the stomach is still visible (arrowhead). K. Complete trochophore, ventral view. PlaDlxa expression in the prototroch is clear, as is the band around the stomach (arrowhead) and the lateral ectoderm. L. Complete trochophore, lateral view. PlaDlxb is expressed in the suboesophageal ganglion, ventral nerve cords, and a ring around the stomach (arrowhead). M. Complete trochophore, apical-lateral view. PlaDlxb is expressed in apical ectoderm, apical organ and prototroch. N. Complete trochophore, lateral view. PlaDlxb is expressed in the apical organ, suboesophageal ganglion, ventral nerve cords and intestine. O. Metatrochophore, lateral view. PlaDlxa has a punctate pattern throughout the animal. P. Metatrochophore, ventral view. PlaDlxb is primarily expressed in cells in the stomach area. Q. Young juvenile, ventral view. PlaDlxa is expressed in cells associated with the stomach. R. Young juvenile, dorsal view. PlaDlxb is expressed in cells associated with the stomach. S. Posterior of older juvenile, ventral view. PlaDlxa expression is in cells in the stomach, intestinal region, in individual cells in the pygidium and between intestinal folds (arrowhead). T. Posterior of older juvenile, ventral view. PlaDlxb expressing cells in the intestinal region. U. Older juvenile, PlaElaV (a neural marker) expression shown for comparison. PlaElaV is expressed in cells associated with the stomach, in some cells in the intestinal region, and in some cells in the parapodia (arrowhead). Apical ectoderm (ae), apical organ (ao), apical tuft (at), branchial crown (bc), intestine (i), lateral ectoderm (le), operculum (op), prototroch (pt), pygidium (py), stomach (st), suboesophageal ganglion (sg), ventral nerve cords (vnc).

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