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Table 4 Likelihood-based tests for alternative topologies

From: Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling

Topologya Ln Likelihood Diff.b SH AU
(1,(2,(3,((4,(5, 6)),((7, 8), R))))) -159175.3 0.0 1.0000 0.9139
(7,(1,(2,(3,(4,((5, 6),(8, R))))))) -159195.4 20.1 0.4269 0.2226
(1,(2,(7,(3,(4,((5, 6),(8, R))))))) -159195.7 20.4 0.4109 0.0514
(1,(7,(2,(3,(4,((5, 6),(8, R))))))) -159198.9 23.6 0.3037 0.0766
(7,(1,(2,(3,(6,(8,(5,(4, R)))))))) -159200.5 25.2 0.2912 0.1972
(7,(1,(3,(2,(4,((5, 6),(8, R))))))) -159201.4 26.1 0.2531 0.0882
((1, 3),(7,(2,((5, 6), (8, R)))))c -159212.5 37.2 0.1071 0.0000*
(7,(1,(2,(3,((4, 6),(5,(8, R)))))) -159215.6 40.3 0.0446* 0.0000*
(1,(2,(7,(3,(4,(5,(6,(8, R)))))))) -159219.3 44.0 0.0371* 0.0000*
(1,(4,(7,(2,(3,(6,(8,(5, R)))))))) -159220.9 45.6 0.0485* 0.0295
Calcagnotto et al. [31] -159685.2 509.9 0.0145* 0.0000*
Lucena and Menezes [12] -159692.4 517.1 0.0128* 0.0000*
Mirande [22], node 176 only -160345.9 1170.6 0.0000* 0.0000*
Mirande [22] -166637.0 7461.7 0.0000* 0.0000*
  1. SH and AU are probability values obtained for the Shimodaira-Hasegawa and the Approximately Unbiased tests (Shimodaira 2002). Asterisks denote significant values (P < 0.05 for SH and P < 0.01 for AU), that imply the topology is rejected.
  2. a Topologies are sorted by likelihood values (obtained with Treefinder); at the top is the unconstrained ML topology summarized in Figure 4. Alternative hypotheses tested are depicted by parenthetic notation, where numbers represent the following taxa: 1: Distichodontidae+Citharinidae, 2: Crenuchidae, 3: Alestidae+Hepsetidae, 4: Erythrinidae, 5: Parodontidae, 6: Cynodontidae+Anostomoidea+Serrasalmidae+Hemiodontidae, 7: Ctenoluciidae, 8: Lebiasinidae, R: the rest (node 31 in Figure 4). Other topologies tested were taken from Calcagnotto et al. (2005); Lucena and Menezes (1998): the monophyly of Cynodontidae according to these authors groups: Cynodon, Hydrolycus, Rhaphiodon, Gilbertolus, and Roestes; Mirande (2010): either his full cladogram or only a constraint to impose his node 176 (Salmininae, Agoniatinae, Acestrorhynchinae, Cynodontidae).
  3. b Difference in Ln likelihood score with the best tree and the alternative topologies tested.
  4. c This topology is consistent with the reciprocal monophyly of African and Neotropical species.