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Table 5 Procrustes ANOVA for the coral example, with a symmetry group consisting of reflection and rotation of order 2

From: Beyond bilateral symmetry: geometric morphometric methods for any type of symmetry

Source Degrees of freedom Sums of squares Mean squares F P
Individual 1127 4.9380 0.0043815 1.82 < 0.000001
Rotation 23 0.096360 0.0041896 4.20 < 0.000001
Reflection 23 0.16058 0.0069818 1.34 0.13
Rotation × reflection 23 0.072451 0.0031501 3.17 < 0.000001
Rotation × individual 1127 1.1251 0.0009983 4.95 < 0.000001
Reflection × individual 1127 5.8839 0.0052209 25.87 < 0.000001
Rotation × reflection × individual 1127 1.1184 0.0009924 4.92 < 0.000001
[Total FA] 3381 8.1274 0.0024039   
Imaging error 4600 0.92842 0.0002018 1.26 < 0.000001
Digitizing error 9200 1.4789 0.0001607   
  1. The main effect of individuals is tested against the mean square for the total fluctuating asymmetry ("Total FA": pooling sums of squares and degrees of freedom across all three subspaces with asymmetric variation: rotation × individual, reflection × individual and rotation × reflection × individual). This total asymmetry is not used otherwise in the analysis.