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Table 1 Haplogroup coalescence time estimates

From: Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins

   All substitutions Synonymous transitions Synonymous substitutions
Haplogroup N ρ σ T (ky) a ρ σ T (ky) b ρ σ T (ky) c 95% CI (ky) d
A4    171 5.36 1.33 27.5 ± 6.8 2.86 0.94 19.4 ± 6.4 2.88 0.94 22.7 ± 7.4 8.2-37.2
  A2   158 3.48 0.24 17.9 ± 1.2 1.89 0.19 12.8 ± 1.3 1.92 0.19 15.1 ± 1.5 12.2-18.0
  A2*   133 3.80 0.25 19.5 ± 1.3 2.03 0.19 13.7 ± 1.3 2.05 0.19 16.1 ± 1.5 13.2-19.1
  A4a   6 1.83 0.83 9.4 ± 4.3 1.50 0.80 10.1 ± 5.4 1.50 0.80 11.8 ± 6.3 0-24.2
  A4b   3 3.00 1.20 15.4 ± 6.2 0.66 0.47 4.5 ± 3.2 1.00 0.58 7.9 ± 4.6 0-16.8
  A4c   4 4.50 1.06 23.1 ± 5.5 2.25 0.75 15.2 ± 5.1 2.25 0.75 17.7 ± 5.9 6.1-29.2
  B2   96 4.05 0.39 20.8 ± 2.0 2.21 0.31 14.9 ± 2.1 2.30 0.31 18.1 ± 2.4 13.3-22.9
   B2b 8 4.50 0.94 23.1 ± 4.8 2.13 0.62 14.4 ± 4.2 2.13 0.62 16.8 ± 4.9 7.2-26.3
C4    35 4.09 0.90 21.0 ± 4.6 2.54 0.81 17.2 ± 5.5 2.54 0.81 20.0 ± 6.4 7.5-32.5
  C4a   12 5.00 1.44 25.7 ± 7.4 2.75 1.05 18.6 ± 7.1 2.75 1.05 21.6 ± 8.3 5.4-37.8
  C4b   21 1.81 0.43 9.3 ± 2.2 0.86 0.36 5.8 ± 2.4 0.86 0.36 6.8 ± 2.8 1.2-12.3
  C4c**   2 4.00 1.41 20.6 ± 7.3 1.50 0.87 10.1 ± 5.9 1.50 0.87 11.8 ± 6.8 0-25.2
  C1   160 4.20 0.28 21.6 ± 2.7 2.056 0.19 13.9 ± 1.3 2.08 0.19 16.4 ± 1.5 13.5-19.3
   C1a 4 1.50 0.61 7.7 ± 3.2 0.25 0.25 1.7 ± 1.7 0.25 0.25 1.9 ± 1.9 0-5.8
   C1b 47 3.49 0.44 17.9 ± 2.3 2.34 0.39 15.8 ± 2.6 2.34 0.39 18.4 ± 3.1 12.4-24.4
   C1c 28 4.32 0.65 22.2 ± 3.3 2.64 0.54 17.9 ± 3.7 2.71 0.55 21.3 ± 4.3 12.8-29.8
   C1d 81 3.91 0.86 20.1 ± 4.4 1.70 0.21 11.5 ± 1.4 1.72 0.21 13.5 ± 1.7 10.2-16.8
D4e1   53 4.70 1.76 24.1 ± 9.0 2.28 1.27 15.4 ± 8.6 2.28 1.27 17.9 ± 10 0-37.5
  D2   50 2.84 1.23 14.6 ± 6.3 1.38 0.90 9.3 ± 6.1 1.38 0.90 10.9 ± 7.1 0-24.8
  D4e1c**   2 0.50 0.50 2.6 ± 2.6 - - - - - - -
  D1   49 3.35 0.39 17.2 ± 2.0 1.84 0.28 12.4 ± 1.9 1.90 0.28 14.9 ± 2.2 10.6-19.3
   D1f 4 3.75 1.15 19.3 ± 5.9 1.75 0.75 11.8 ± 5.1 1.75 0.75 13.8 ± 5.9 2.2-25.3
  1. a mutation rate: one base substitution in the coding region per 5, 140 years [58].
  2. b mutation rate: one synonymous transition per 6, 764 year [76].
  3. c Calculated using as per calibrated mutation rate of Soares et al. [59].
  4. d 95% confidence interval: negative values are zeroed.
  5. * Excluding branches A2a and A2b.
  6. ** Only two sequences hence coalescent age not reliable.