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Table 2 Linear (β) and quadratic (γ) selection on all morphological traits measured in this study in a data set that included all individuals (Full, N = 172), as well as in a second dataset from which we excluded all individuals whose Gosner stage was > 39 at the time of release were excluded (Reduced, N = 151).

From: Predator mediated selection and the impact of developmental stage on viability in wood frog tadpoles (Rana sylvatica)

   Directional selection Quadratic selection
Data set Trait β ± SE γ ± SE
Full Head Length 0.08 ± 0.16 - 0.06 ± 0.16
  Head Height 0.10 ± 0.12 0.14 ± 0.14
  Tail Length - 0.16 ± 0.13 0.004 ± 0.16
  Tail muscle Height - 0.14 ± 0.15 - 0.10 ± 0.14
  Tail Fin Height 0.22 ± 0.09* - 0.06 ± 0.11
  Swimming speed - 0.01 ± 0.07 - 0.06 ± 0.10
Reduced Head Length 0.05 ± 0.19 - 0.10 ± 0.17
  Head Height 0.09 ± 0.13 0.14 ± 0.15
  Tail Length - 0.17 ± 0.14 0.04 ± 0.19
  Tail muscle Height - 0.08 ± 0.16 - 0.03 ± 0.17
  Tail Fin Height 0.21 ± 0.10* - 0.05 ± 0.12
  Swimming speed - 0.05 ± 0.08 - 0.10 ± 0.11
  1. Asterisks indicate significant (* P < 0.05) selection, as determined by a generalized linear model with a logit link function and survival (0 or 1) as the response variable. A term for Gosner stage was included in these models, but because development stage is not a "trait" on which one can measure selection, is not shown here. A factor for tank was also included. See text for details.