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Table 3 Linear (β) and quadratic (γ) selection on all morphological traits except burst swimming speed.

From: Predator mediated selection and the impact of developmental stage on viability in wood frog tadpoles (Rana sylvatica)

   Directional selection Quadratic selection
Data set Trait β ± SE γ ± SE
Full Head Length - 0.01 ± 0.11 - 0.18 ± 0.10
  Head Height 0.10 ± 0.09 0.04 ± 0.09
  Tail Length - 0.19 ± 0.07* - 0.16 ± 0.06*
  Tail muscle Height 0.02 ± 0.09 - 0.03 ± 0.09
  Tail Fin Height 0.24 ± 0.06*** - 0.07 ± 0.06
Reduced Head Length - 0.08 ± 0.12 - 0.24 ± 0.11*
  Head Height 0.07 ± 0.10 0.07 ± 0.10
  Tail Length - 0.14 ± 0.08 - 0.11 ± 0.08
  Tail muscle Height 0.07 ± 0.10 -0.03 ± 0.10
  Tail Fin Height 0.16 ± 0.07* -0.08 ± 0.08
  1. The results of two analyses are presented: a Full dataset that included all individuals (N = 381), as well as in a second dataset in data set (Reduced, N = 324), from which we excluded all individuals whose Gosner stage was > 39 at the time of release. Asterisks indicate significant (* P < 0.05, ***P < 0.005) selection, as determined by a generalized linear model with a logit link function and survival (0 or 1) as the response variable. A term for Gosner stage was included in these models, but because development stage is not a "trait" on which one can measure selection, is not shown here. A factor for tank was also included. See text for details.