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Table 3 Mixed model analysis of variance for larval traits.

From: Adaptive divergence of the moor frog (Rana arvalis) along an acidification gradient

  a) Mass b) Larval period c) Growth rate
Random effects Var ± SE Z P Var ± SE Z P Var ± SE Z P
Family (Pond pH) 2.58 ± 0.61 4.26 < 0.001 1.13 ± 0.28 4.09 < 0.001 2.95 ± 0.70 4.19 < 0.001
Family (Pond pH) × pH treatment 0 .   0.19 ± 0.11 1.72 0.043 0   
Residuals 9.99 ± 0.45 22.42 < 0.001 3.30 ± 0.15 21.79 < 0.001 12.42 ± 0.55 22.42 < 0.001
Fixed effects ndf ddf F P ndf ddf F P ndf ddf F P
Pond pH 7 55 7.7 < 0.001 7 55 8.4 < 0.001 7 55 2.8 0.016
pH treatment 1 1006 318.1 < 0.001 1 54 54.4 < 0.001 1 1006 427.4 < 0.001
Pond pH × pH treatment 7 1006 1.8 0.079 7 54 1.7 0.136 7 1006 0.7 0.661
Block 2 1006 2.4 0.094 2 955 0.2 0.835 2 1006 2.4 0.090
Linear contrasts ndf ddf F P ndf ddf F P ndf ddf F P
Pond pH 1 55 39.9 < 0.001 1 55 29.5 < 0.001 1 55 6.2 0.016
Pond pH × pH treatment 1 1006 1.7 0.194 1 54 6.6 0.013 1 1006 0.2 0.637
  1. Results are shown for (log) a) metamorphic mass, b) larval period and c) growth rate in eight R. arvalis populations occurring along a pH gradient. Significant effects are highlighted in bold.