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Figure 11 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Figure 11

From: Development of the nervous system in Phoronopsis harmeri (Lophotrochozoa, Phoronida) reveals both deuterostome- and trochozoan-like features

Figure 11

Organization of the FMRFamide-like immunoreactive nervous system in 5-day-old (A-E) and 6-day-old (F-H) larvae. Z-projections of larvae after double and triple staining with antibodies against FMRFamide (cyan), as well as staining with phalloidin (blue), and Hoechst (violet). Apical is to the top in all cases except for E, where it is to the upper right. (A) Overview showing apical organ (ao), marginal neurite bundle (mn), tentacular neurite bundle (tn), and midgut perikarya (mgp); dorsal view. (B) Oral field and basal part of the preoral lobe of a larva with oral nerve ring (or), marginal neurite bundle (mn), ventral neurite bundles (vnb), upper ventro-lateral perikarya (uvl), ventro-lateral neurites (vln), and lower ventro-lateral perikarya (lvl). Ventral view; the image is composed of the most ventral optical sections. (C) Lateral part of the apical organ with monopolar perikarya (mo), their basal processes (bp), neuropil (np), and bipolar or multipolar perikaryon (arrowheads). (D) Dorsal part of the apical organ with main bipolar or multipolar perikarya (mpe) and two groups of additional bipolar or multipolar perikarya (ape) that connect to the neuropil (np) via a prominent neurite bundle (double arrows). (E) Dorsal side of a larva with thin tentacular neurite bundle (tn) that arises from main bipolar or multipolar perikarya (mpe) and then forms two branches. Midgut perikarya (mgp) are shown. The micrograph contains the most dorsal optical sections only. (F) Overview of the musculature and FMRFamide-like immunoreactive nervous system showing apical organ (ao), perikarya of the preoral lobe (plp), marginal neurite bundle (mn), oral ring (or), ventral neurite bundles (vnb) with commissures (arrowheads), ventro-lateral neurites (vln), upper ventro-lateral perikarya (uvl), lower ventro-lateral perikarya (lvl), tentacular neurite bundle (tn), and midgut perikarya (mgp). Ventral view. (G) Part of the preoral lobe with marginal neurite bundle (mn) and perikaryon (pe) with neurites (arrowheads). (H) Ventral neurite bundleswith paired perikarya (pe) and commissures (arrowheads). Ventral view; four most ventral optical sections were used only to produce this image.

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