Sample sites of B. dorsalis s.l. in southeast Asia. Map of southeast Asia showing sample sites from which Bactrocera dorsalis complex flies were collected for this study. Different coloured regions denote the generally accepted geographic distributions and inferred zones of transition among B. dorsalis s.s. (red), B. papayae (green) and B. philippinensis (blue; but also recorded from Borneo) based on  and . For illustrative purposes, the dotted line represents the approximate coastline for when sea levels dropped to 120 m below current levels exposing the Sunda shelf and forming the extensive region of ‘Sundaland’ (redrawn from ).