Analysis of female and male survival in chamois. Cox proportional survival hazards (thick lines) and 95% confidence intervals (thin lines) of reproductively active males and females in populations of the Eastern Alps affected by scabies (red), or where scabies was never reported (green). Reproductive activity was assumed for animals older than four years, the age when males first engage in rutting . Black lines indicate survivorships of chamois in the Maritime Alps Regional Park in Italy, an area where scabies never occurred and hunting is banned; these survivorships were estimated from carcasses found in the natural habitat and aged by . Survivorship curves are plotted on a logarithmic scale representing the proportion of individuals surviving to a certain age.