3a: Maximum-Likelihood (GTR+R model) phylogenetic tree of the mtDNA COI gene, indicating the paraphyletic nature of the Spodoptera genus. Haplo1, the most common of the S. exempta haplotypes, is indicated by the solid diamond. The scale bar represents a 2% estimated difference in nucleotide sequence. Numbers given at each node correspond to the percentage bootstrap values (for 1000 repetitions). Replicate numbers of <60% were not included in the figure. The nymphalid Hypolimnas bolina is used as an outgroup, 3b: A network analysis displaying the skew and selection for mtDNA haplotype haplo1 (H1) within the S. exempta populations. The filled grey segment in the H1 pie-chart indicates the total percentage of Wolbachia infections in the samples, all found within haplo1 haplotypes. The most divergent haplotypes are found furthest from the centre, and brackets indicate the difference in nucleotide substitutions with haplo1. Filled circles indicate “missing” haplotypes in the evolutionary chain.