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Figure 1 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Figure 1

From: Fire-adapted Gondwanan Angiosperm floras evolved in the Cretaceous

Figure 1

Chronophylogeny and trait assignment for the Proteaceae. (a) genera and lineages that currently occur in fireprone floras (with probability >0.95) are given in red, with broken lines indicating lineages with both extant rainforest and fireprone-habitat species. Data for phylogeny from [12] with the position of Banksia sl updated [8, Figure 1b. Genera in Macadamieae were collapsed into one lineage. I = Bellendenoideae, II = Persoonioideae, III = Symphionematoideae (nomenclature after [49]). K = Cretaceous, Neo = Neogene, Qu = Quaternary. S = soil storage diagnostic for the genus, C = canopy seed storage (serotiny), Sa = soil storage plus diaspore has aril, * S, C and Sa present. Sectors of disks represent fractions of total probabilities of each seed-storage type along that stem. S, C and Sa within the chronogram are the condition of the clade at that position with probability > 0.95. D1−5 are divergence events where the clade splits between rainforest and fireprone habitats with probability > 0.80. (b) abbreviated chronogram for Banksia ss and Dryandra (from [8]) with extinct fossil banksias in Eastern Australia (EA) given as a broken line. (c) drupe of Persoonia saccata showing ‘stone’ (pyrene) that survives digestion and is promoted to germinate by fire, scale 1 cm. (d) cone of Banksia laricina with follicles that open in response to heat produced during combustion of its fine foliage, 2 cm. (e) diaspore of Adenanthos cygnorum showing ant-attracting aril at its base (left) and removed by ants (right) that is buried and stored until stimulated to germinate by fire, 2 mm. (f) cone of Leucadendron tinctum that releases its winged diaspores on desiccating after fire, 2 cm. (g) cone of Banksia lanata postfire showing open follicles with (upper left) the separator easing out two winged seeds in response to wet-dry cycles, 2 cm. (h) obligately heat-opened follicle of Xylomelum angustifolium showing mottled seed that suggests crypsis when among post-fire litter particles, 2 cm. (i) serotinous diaspores of Protea burchellii released onto an ash/charcoal microsite, 1 cm. (j) postfire litter microsite showing 3-month-old seedlings of serotinous Banksia, Hakea and Petrophile species, 10 cm. (k) net speciation rates for 5 sister rainforest/fireprone lineages/clades (D1−D5 in Figure 1).

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