Overview map of the biogeographic history of Fabeae. World map showing the reconstructed biogeographical scenario for the Fabeae: origin 23–16 Ma in the Mediterranean, then at least 24 times range expansion into Asia and 15 times into Central and Western Europe. Furthermore, at least two range expansions or dispersal events into tropical Africa. South America was colonized twice via LDD from the Mediterranean and once via range expansion from North America. North America was colonized once via LDD from Europe/Mediterranean, three times from Asia and perhaps three times through range expansion of South American lineages. Macaronesia was reached four times by LDD from the Mediterranean with one colonisation of the Azores and three of the Canaries/Madeira.