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Figure 2 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Figure 2

From: Lotka–Volterra dynamics kills the Red Queen: population size fluctuations and associated stochasticity dramatically change host-parasite coevolution

Figure 2

The time until fixation of one allele, either host or parasite, is shown in dependence of the initial population size N avg . Including Lotka-Volterra fluctuations, the fixation time is only weakly affected by increases in N avg . Excluding Lotka-Volterra cycles maintains allele frequency oscillations, leading to an exponential increase in fixation time as N avg increases. For all simulations the initial condition were H1=5%, H2=95%, P1=20%, P2=80% of the N avg , and the parameters μ=5, c=2.5, b=10/N avg with averages over 106 realizations). The vertical dotted line shows the population size employed in Figure 3.

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