Scenario of the recent history of B. lapidarius . Approximate location of European refugia and isolated East Turkish populations. The light grey area: range of East Turkish populations. The red area: approximate location of the South Italian refuge. The purple area: approximate location of the refuge of the Balkan region. The green area: approximate location of the refuge of Central-Eastern Europe. The orange area with question mark: the putative Iberian refuge. Arrows are postglacial movements after the Last Ice Age.