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Table 1 Ranges and morphological characteristics differentiating eight North American species of Pinus subsection Strobus

From: An empirical evaluation of two-stage species tree inference strategies using a multilocus dataset from North American pines

Taxa Common name Range Elevation (m) Seed cone Seeds Dispersal Related notes
     length (cm)    
P. albicaulis 1 Whitebark pine Central British Columbia and Alberta south to central California; northern Rockies west to the Cascades and Sierra Nevadas 1300-3700 4-8 Wingless Birds and rodents Closed cone morphology where scales are opened through animal agency exclusively; timberline species.
P. ayacahuite 2 Mexican white pine Central Mexico to Honduras; sympatric with P. chiapensis at lower elevations 2300-3200 14-40 Winged Wind Southernmost species of the North American subsection Strobus; among the largest of Mexican pines.
P. chiapensis 2 Chiapas pine Veracruz, Mexico to northwestern Guatemala; sympatric with P. ayacahuite at upper elevations 260-2300 8-16 Winged Wind Formally considered as a disjunct population of Pinus strobus var. chiapensis.
P. flexilis 1 Limber pine Rocky Mountains and Intermountain Ranges from Canada south into the central US 1500-3600 7-15 Wingless Birds and rodents Often found at timberline; oldest trees date beyond 1600 years.
P. lambertiana 1 Sugar pine Oregon, California, Nevada, and isolated population in northern Baja California 330-3200 25-50 Winged Wind Largest species and longest seed cone of Pinus; unable to hybridize with any other North American pine.
P. monticola 1 Western white pine Southern British Columbia to south-central California; northern Rockies, Cascades, and Sierra Nevadas 0-3000 10-25 Winged Wind Found in moist, montane forests while most other western species are relegated to drier and more exposed sites.
P. strobiformis 1 Southwestern white pine Northern Mexico extending into central Arizona and New Mexico 1900-3500 15-25 Wingless Birds and rodents Range intergrades with P. ayacahuite to the south and P. flexilis to the north, and with these two species, forms a well-documented complex.
P. strobus 1 Eastern white pine Southern Canada south to Georgia; Newfoundland to western Ontario and Minnesota 0-1500 8-20 Winged Wind Only member of this group to occur in the eastern US and Canada; allopatric from all other taxa in subsection Strobus.
  1. 1[52].
  2. 2[53].