A map of the source areas for the lion samples analysed in this study. Numbers within circles correspond to PL numbers in Table 1. Squares correspond to sequences available on Genbank and identified in Additional file 3: Table S1. Colours of squares and circles correspond to those used in Figure 2. *PL11 and PL12 are medieval English lions that have been identified as North African lions (P. leo leo) based on mitochondrial HVR sequences and morphological data.