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Figure 3 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Figure 3

From: Influence of Tertiary paleoenvironmental changes on the diversification of South American mammals: a relaxed molecular clock study within xenarthrans

Figure 3

Molecular timing of the xenarthran radiation and Tertiary major environmental changes in South America. Phylogenetic relationships and divergence times are represented by a chronogram, whose branch lengths are proportional to time units, obtained from the partitioned analysis of the complete ADRA2B + BRCA1 + VWF (codon positions 1+2+3) placental dataset (5130 sites). Confidence limits on divergence time estimates are represented by rectangles at nodes corresponding to ± one standard deviation (see Table 1). Tertiary Epoch boundaries follow the 1999 geologic timescale of the Geological Society of America [77]. The Cretaceous/Tertiary transition (K/T) is represented by a vertical dashed bar at 65 Mya. Major Andean tectonic crises 5 are represented by grey shaded areas. Eustatic curves of sea level are from [71]. The ocean temperature curve (in red) is based on the high-resolution deep-sea oxygen isotope record (δO18) [72]. Node numbering refers to Table 1.

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