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Table 1 Assessment of the monophyletic origin of reproductive organ characteristics.

From: Shooting darts: co-evolution and counter-adaptation in hermaphroditic snails

H0 -ln L Δ P rell P BI
Monophyly assumed across all snails     
Optimal tree 3240.98    
Dart number 3330.76 89.78 0.031 <0.001*
Blade number 3538.66 297.68 <0.001* <0.001*
Presence of perpendicular blades 3283.10 42.12 0.399 <0.001*
Stylophore number 3450.29 209.31 <0.001* <0.001*
Gland number 3492.69 251.71 <0.001* <0.001*
Shape of glands 3705.34 464.36 <0.001* <0.001*
Presence of flagellum 3326.69 85.71 0.044 <0.001*
Presence of diverticulum 3245.56 4.58 0.905 0.002*
Monophyly assumed within families     
Optimal tree 3240.98    
Dart number 3295.14 54.16 0.234 <0.001*
Blade number 3351.62 110.64 0.012 <0.001*
Presence of perpendicular blades 3283.11 42.13 0.399 <0.001*
Stylophore number 3386.55 145.57 <0.001* <0.001*
Gland number 3373.91 132.92 0.005 <0.001*
Shape of glands 3455.91 214.93 <0.001* <0.001*
Presence of flagellum 3269.58 28.60 0.574 <0.001*
Presence of diverticulum 3240.98 0 0.962 0.843
  1. The following ancestral states were assumed: Zero darts, no blades on the dart, no perpendicular blades on the blades, two functional and two vestigial stylophores, many tubular glands, a simple gland shape, and absence of the flagellum of the penis and diverticulum of the spermatophore-receiving organs. Abbreviations: -ln L, negative natural logarithmic likelihood value for the hypothesis, as calculated from a constrained tree using ML in PAUP*. Δ, difference from the optimal tree; P rell , probability according to the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test; P BI , Bayesian posterior probability; *, Significance after Bonferroni correction.