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Table 1 Rates of nucleotide substitution in protein-coding mtDNA from corals, plants, and bilateral animals.

From: No variation and low synonymous substitution rates in coral mtDNA despite high nuclear variation

  Time of divergence (MY) KS/yra KA/yra
B. elegans vs. T. coccinea (corals, Anthozoa) 50 0.056 (0.020) 0.019 (0.006)
Rice vs. maize[26] (Angiosperms) 50 0.05 (0.01) 0.02 (0.00)
Tegula verrucosa vs. T. viridula[36,79] (topsnails; Lophotrochozoa) 3 5.7 (0.93) 0.033 (0.033)
Alpheus panamensis vs. A. formosus A[80] (snapping shrimp; Ecdysozoa) 3 8.6 (1.38) 0.0
Echinometra vanbrunti vs. E. lucunter[81] (sea urchins; invertebrate Deuterostoma) 3 8.1 (1.27) 0.036 (0.036)
Abudefduf saxatilis vs. A. troschelli[82] (damselfish; vertebrate Deuterostoma) 3 4.5 3 (0.36) -
Sphyrna tiburo tiburo vs. S. t. vespertina[33] (sharks; vertebrate Deuterostoma) 3 2.4 (0.41) 0.056 (0.033)
  1. a Rates are in units of % substitutions per site per 106 years. KS, synonymous substitutions per synonymous site; KA, nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site. All estimates for fragments of coxI except angiosperms (mean of several mitochondrial genes, including coxI) and Sphyrna (cytochrome b).