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Table 1 Results of the ANOVAs (mixed model) on wing area, viability (performed on the square root of the arcsine of the percentage value) and developmental time. The populations were grouped, with respect to their origin (Location), in temperate (Paris, Bologna and Bologna thermal stock 18°C) and tropical (Belém and Saõ Tomè). Location and temperature are fixed effects, population is nested within location within temperature.

From: Thermal plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster: A comparison of geographic populations

   WING AREA VIABILITY DEVELOPMENTAL TIME
Source of variation df MS F MS F MS F
Location 1 5.3095 103.9 *** 0.0026 0.0057 14.53 3.09 †
Temperature 3 4.31 84.3 *** 1.294 2.81 † 17901 3775 ***
Location × temperature 3 0.1539 3.01 † 0.274 0.6 13.67 2.88 †
Population within location and temperature 12/12/11 0.0511 33.9 *** 0.46 69.4 *** 4.7 8.11 ***
Residuals 180/175/170 0.0015   0.0067   0.585  
  1. † 0.10 <P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001; df, degrees of freedom; MS, mean square; F, variance ratio.