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Table 3 Divergence time evaluation of Ursidae family (Mya)

From: Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae), a mammalian family that experienced rapid speciation

  fossil recordsa protein electrophoresis analysis from Goldman, Giri and O'Brien (1989) [6] partial mt gene analysis from Talbot and Shields (1996) [12] two nuclear gene analysis from Yu et al (2004) [13] mt genome analysis from this study
T. ornatus separation 5–7 10–15 12–13 6–8 10.91
six Ursine bears (or U. ursinus) divergence (node 5) 4–6 4–8 5–7 2–5 6.34
five Ursine bears (except U. ursinus) divergence (node 4) - - 6 - 6.13
U. malayanus divergence (node 3) 0.2–1 or 5–10 - 5 - 5.67
U. thibetanusU. americanus split (node 2) 1–3.5 - 5 - 5.19
U. arctosU. maritimus split (node 1) 0.07–0.1 2–3 1–2 1–1.5 1.32
  1. - no divergence time evaluation in the study
  2. a from Kurten 1968 [9]; Thenius 1979 [27]; Kurten and Anderson 1980 [35]; Savage and Russell 1983 [37]; Wayne et al. 1991 [26]