Distribution of duplication scores across all species trees. Distributions of out-duplication scores across all 945 binary angiosperm species trees (all rooted with Pinus). An out-duplication score is the sum of all out-duplications required to reconcile all 577 gene trees (or sets of trees) to that species tree. The upper panel shows the distribution of scores when the gene trees were estimated using maximum parsimony; the lower panel gives the same for the maximum likelihood gene trees. Arrows indicate the bins in which the accepted species tree occurs. For the MP gene trees, the accepted species tree was fourth from the best and had a score of 796.3 (the optimal species tree had a score of 771.9). For the ML gene trees, the optimal tree was the same as the accepted tree and had a score of 779.0.