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Table 3 Migration rates estimated by MIGRATE

From: Genetic variation in Northern Thailand Hill Tribes: origins and relationships with social structure and linguistic differences

  mtDNA Y-Chrom
1. Between two populations belonging to the same Sino-Tibetan matrilocal tribe 2.4 4.1
2. Between two populations belonging to different Sino-Tibetan matrilocal tribes 6.1 4.2
Average 4.25 (0.98) 4.05 (0.45)
3. Between two populations belonging to the same Sino-Tibetan patrilocal tribe 19.0 2.2
4. Between two populations belonging to different Sino-Tibetan patrilocal tribes 8.2 0.7
5. Between two populations belonging to different Hmong-Mien patrilocal tribes 14.2 2.4
Average 13.80 (1.52) 1.76 (0.23)
  1. Estimates of the rate of gene flow (θ = N e m,) obtained in different population comparisons. Comparisons 1–2 refer to matrilocal tribes, from the same (1: White Karen vs. Red Karen) or different (2: pooled Karen vs. Lahu) ethnic groups. Comparisons 3–5 refer to patrilocal tribes, from the same (3: average between Akha vs. Akha and Lisu vs. Lisu) or different (4: pooled Akha vs. pooled Lisu) ethnic groups within the Sino-Tibetan linguistic family, and from different ethic groups within the Hmong-Mien linguistic family (5: Hmong vs. Iu Mien). Standard errors based on different runs and different pairwise estimates within the same group of comparisons are reported in parentheses.