Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees of selected Cide or Dff family proteins from model organisms. (A) Shown here is the NJ phylogeny of 31 representative Cide and Dff family proteins from various model organisms. The protein sequences conserved by CIDE and Dff family proteins were used and the tree was drawn by using MEGA 4.0. (B) The NJ phylogeny of 17 selected Cide family proteins in vertebrates based on the CIDE-C domain rooted by the NCD of amphioxus Dffa. (C) The NJ phylogeny of 17 selected Cide family proteins in vertebrates based on the CIDE-N domain rooted at midpoint. Bootstrap values for NJ, ML and UPGMA analyses (first, second and third values, respectively) are presented for each clade. The scale bar indicates the number of amino acid substitutions per site. Model organisms used are amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae), little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), X.tropicalis, chicken (Gallus gallus), opossum (Monodelphis domestica), mouse (Mus musculus), human (Homo sapiens).