Hypotheses on the evolution of social parasitism and fungiculture in Lasius ants. Subgenera are abbreviated as in Fig. 1. Asterisks indicate the emergence of the trait, crossed circles its loss. Subgenera currently displaying social parasitism or fungiculture are indicated by frames filled black. Alternative hypotheses are offered for the evolution of social parasitism and fungiculture due to two insignificant results of the ancestral character state reconstruction in Table 5, with probabilites for the competing scenarios given, based on the values in Table 5.