The mammoth FGF5 protein compared to the human FGF5 protein sequence. (A) Pairwise alignment of the FGF5 sequences from human [GenBank:NP_004455] and mammoth (this study). The secondary structure, which is shown above each alignment row, represents the consensus structure as predicted by the SSPro and PHYRE programs. The signal peptide is shown with bold-italic fonts; the position of the G33A forest elephant mutation is depicted with bold-underlined fonts; the solvent exposed loop is shown with italics; the glycine box is shown with underlined font . Black triangles depict O-glycosylation sites and a black diamond is used to depict the N-glycosylation site. The FGF receptor (FGFR) binding sites are shown with # and the heparin binding sites with * . (B) The three-dimensional model of the mammoth FGF5 (violet color) protein. The FGFR and heparin binding sites are depicted using yellow and blue color, respectively. The differences between human and mammoth FGF5 sequences are colored green.