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Table 1 Selection gradients for all traits and all years on Kidd cay.

From: Parallel shifts in ecology and natural selection in an island lizard

W (2003) 33.8% survival β/γ SE χ2 P-Value
Hindlimb 0.09 0.14 0.57 0.45
Forelimb 0.03 0.14 0.06 0.79
Hindlimb2 -0.34 0.22 3.19 0.07
Forelimb2 -0.30 0.26 1.96 0.16
Hindlimb × Forelimb 0.293 0.16 4.14 0.04
W (2003) Kidd cay
SVL 0.03 0.17 0.39 0.53
SVL2 0.16 0.20 0.57 0.45
W (2004 Animals replaced) 32% survival
Hindlimb -0.13 0.15 0.77 0.37
Forelimb -0.13 0.15 0.66 0.42
Hindlimb2 0.14 0.20 0.49 0.48
Forelimb2 0.24 0.26 1.07 0.30
Hindlimb × Forelimb 0.01 0.17 0.00 0.96
W (2004)
SVL 0.05 0.15 0.11 0.74
SVL2 0.60 0.22 6.88 0.009
W (2005) 45% survival
Hindlimb 0.04 0.12 0.04 0.84
Forelimb -0.03 0.12 0.18 0.67
Hindlimb2 -0.006 0.16 0.00 0.96
Forelimb2 0.38 0.18 4.39 0.04
Hindlimb × Forelimb -0.13 0.18 0.52 0.47
W (2005) β/γ SE χ2 P-Value
SVL -0.23 0.11 4.29 0.04
SVL2 -0.12 0.16 0.63 0.43
W (2006) 42% survival
Hindlimb -0.03 0.10 0.00 0.98
Forelimb 0.13 0.10 0.44 0.50
Hindlimb2 0.12 0.12 0.80 0.37
Forelimb2 -0.10 0.14 0.75 0.38
Hindlimb × Forelimb -0.21 0.09 5.64 0.02
W (2006)
SVL 0.09 0.13 0.46 0.50
SVL2 0.02 0.18 0.02 0.88
  1. Data distributions were standardized (by year) to mean zero and unit variance. Hind and forelimb lengths refer to residual values (regression of log-transformed limb and snout-vent-lengths. W represents survival (0/1). Linear (β) and non-linear (γ) selection gradients come from general linear models, but significance tests were computed from logistic regressions. Quadratic gradients and associated standard errors were doubled [34].