Map of the Australian alpine area and sampling locations. The Australian alpine region, showing major mountain areas (a) and sampling locations in the Mt Buller/Mt Stirling region (b), Bogong High Plains, Dargo High Plains and Mt Buffalo Plateau (c) and the Kosciuszko region (d) (see Additional file 1: Table S1 for coordinates). Samples were also collected from the Baw Baw Plateau (a). Black lines indicate a 1500 m contour, the approximate low-elevation distribution limit of Kosciuscola tristis through most of its range. Shading represents elevation from 0 m a.s.l (black) to 2250 m (white). The red dotted line in (a) indicates the approximate position of the Murray River, where it divides the Kosciuszko region in New South Wales from the Bogong High Plains area in Victoria. The river also marks the State border, between New South Wales (to the north-east) and Victoria (to the south-west).