Bayesian inference of ancestral character - state reconstruction of wing pattern evolution. (a) Leaf vein features of the Kallima wing pattern were coded as 11 characters (Ch) as follows: Ch 1: parallelism of DS and B; Ch 2: attachment of DS and Cp; Ch 3: Cd a single broken straight line; Ch 4: bending of BOp to distal side; Ch 5: straightness of upper side of BOp; Ch 6: vestigiality of ESs; Ch 7: vestigiality of B; Ch 8: fragmentation of Cp; Ch 9: vestigiality of DS; Ch 10: straightness of Cd; Ch 11: vestigiality of ESs. These characters were also surveyed in the closely related species and coded as one of two binary states (‘state 1’ = Kallima-like state; ‘state 0’ = non-Kallima-like state). Characters in forewings (squares) and hindwings (circles) are coloured as in Figure 1. (b) Reconstructed ancestral character states are represented as pie charts indicating Bayesian posterior probability at four selected nodes (A, B, C, and D) by shaded circles (black = state 1; grey = state 0). In the molecular phylogeny, genus Kallima is highlighted in the red box. B, Cp, Cd, BOp, DS, and ESs are defined and presented in Figure 1.