Schematic illustration of gradual evolution of Kallima leaf mimicry patterns. The leaf pattern emerged through several intermediate patterns from the non-mimetic ancestor. The historical time course is shown using four time points (A–D) that correspond to the phylogenetic nodes in Figure 3. At the most ancestral point, the wing pattern may reflect the original developmental basis of the NGP (A). Finally, the wing pattern reached the Kallima-like state (D). Evolutionary changes to the character state ‘1’ are shown at the nodes where a posterior probability of 0.95 or greater occurs (some changes (marked by asterisks) are based on a posterior probability of 0.85 or greater, which represents relatively lower confidence). Characters and NGP elements are coloured as in Figure 1.