Skip to main content


Fig. 1 | BMC Evolutionary Biology

Fig. 1

From: The temporal build-up of hummingbird/plant mutualisms in North America and temperate South America

Fig. 1

Tanglegrams for North American hummingbird species with plant species adapted for bird pollination (lines only connect plants and birds with empirical data on their interaction; see Table 1); a: Map of North America (blue), Central America (orange), and the Caribbean (lilac); b: Schematic depiction of 13 of the 19 dated North American hummingbird-pollinated clades (all 19 are in Table 1 but here we only include plants for which the name of their pollinating hummingbird species is known). Red lines indicate hummingbird-pollinated species, red triangles hummingbird-pollinated plant clades (species number in brackets). Stem ages and crown ages except for Campsis (marked by an asterisk) for which no stem age is provided in the original publication; c: Selasphorus rufas at Ipomopsis aggregata (Polemoniaceae), photo by M. Manske, Oregon Department of Transportation,; d: Dated phylogeny and ancestral area reconstruction for Bee hummingbirds and Mountain Gems. North American species and lineages are indicated with blue lines, Central American species/lineages with orange, Caribbean species with lilac, and hummingbird lineages from other regions with black lines. Orange-blue dashed lines for Calothorax lucifer, Eugenes fulgens, and Selasphorus platycercus indicate that these species occur in Central and North America. Error margins on plant time estimates are shown in Table 1, those for birds in Tables S1. Time scales below figures are in million years before present

Back to article page