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Table 1 The 19 North American hummingbird-adapted plant species/clades, their family assignment, stem and/or crown ages, and pollinators. Numbers in parentheses after plant genera refer to the number of species in the alignment, followed by the total species in the respective clade. Full chronograms are in the online supporting materials Figs. S2a-h

From: The temporal build-up of hummingbird/plant mutualisms in North America and temperate South America

Split of species or clade from nearest relative in alignment Family Stem age (my) Crown age (my) Age reference; figure number Pollinators Pollinator reference
Anisacanthus clade (5/5; A. andersonii, A. quadrifidus, A. linearis, A. puberulus, A. thurberi) Acanthaceae 1.92 (0.21-4.27) 0.82 Cortes, 2013; Fig. 1 Amazilia berryllina, Amazilia violiceps, Archilochus alexandrei, Calypte costae, Calothorax lucifer, Chlorostilbon canivetii, Cynanthus latirostris, Eugenes fulgens, Hylocharis leucotis, Selasphorus platycercus, Selasphorus rufus Daniel, 1982, Dennis & Tekulsky, 1991, Williamson, 2001, van Devender et al., 2004; Holmquist et al., 2005
Aquilegia clade (5/9; A. canadensis, A. elegantula, A. flavescens, A. formosa, A. skinneri) Ranunculaceae 2.52 (NA) 2.11 Bastida et al., 2010, Figs. 1 and S2a Archilochus alexandri, Archilochus colubris, Selasphorus platycercus, Selasphorus rufus, Selasporus sasin Dennis & Tekulsky, 1991, Williamson, 2001, google pictures search: Bretzke Lane webside 06.03.2014
Arbutus peninsularis Ericaceae 0.81 (NA) - Hardy & Cook, 2012 Hylocharis xantusii Williamson, 2001
Campsis radicans Bignoniaceae 3.26 (NA) - Xiang et al. 2000; Fig. 1 Archilochus alexandrei, Archilochus colubris Williamson, 2001
Castilleja elata clade (16/54; C. affinis, C. applegatei, C. chromosa, C. elata, C. elmeri, C. hispida, C. integrifolia, C. integra, C. linariifolia, C. miniata, C. minor, C. peckiana, C. peirsonii, C. praeterita, C. pruinosa, C. tenuiflora) Orobanchaceae 5.14 (3.36-6.92) 3.24 (2.14-4.34) Figs. 1 and 2b Archilochus alexandri, Archilochus colubris, Amazilia violiceps, Calothorax lucifer, Eugenes fulgens, Hylocharis leucotis, Selasphorus flammula, Selasporus platycercus, Selaphorus rufus, Selasphorus sasin, Stellula calliope James, 1972, Williamson, 2001, van Devender et al., 2004, Lara-Rodriguez et al., 2012
Collomia rawsoniana Polemoniaceae 2.12 (0.37-3.87) - Fig. S2c Unknown  
Delphinium cardinale Ranunculaceae 2.93 (NA) - Jabbour & Renner 2012; Fig. 1 Archilochus alexandrei, Calypte costae Selasphorus platycercus, Selasporus rufus Schuchmann, 1999, Williamson, 2001
Ipomopsis aggregata clade (8/8; I. aggregata ssp. aggregata, I. aggregata ssp. attenuata, I. aggregata ssp. bridgesii, I. aggregata ssp. collina, I. aggregata ssp. formosissima, I. arizonica, I. rubra, I. sancti-spiritus) Polemoniaceae 4.73 (NA) 3.5 Figs. 1 and S2c Archilochus alexandri, Selasporus platycercus, Selasporus rufus, Selasphorus sasin, Stellula calliope Carpenter, 1978, Schuchamnn, 1999, Williamson, 2001
Ipomopsis tenuifolia Polemoniaceae 1.49 (0.21-3.10) - Figs. 1 and S2c Calpyte costae Wood & Nakazato, 2009
Keckiella cordifolia Plantaginaceae 1.19 (0.29-2.09) - Fig. S2d Unknown  
Keckiella ternata clade (2/3; K. corymbosa, K. ternata) Plantaginaceae 1.39 (0.56-2.22) 0.9 (0.32-1.48) Figs. 1 and S2d Calypte anna Williamson, 2001
Lithospermum johnstonii Boraginaceae 2.52 (NA) - Cohen, 2012; Fig. S2e Unknown  
Lithospermum leonotis Boraginaceae 0.96 (NA) - Cohen, 2012; Fig. S2e Unknown  
Lithospermum macromeria Boraginaceae 1.58 (NA) - Cohen, 2012; Figs. 1 and S2e Eugenes fulgens, Selasphorus rufus Boyd, 2004
Lithospermum notatum clade (2/2; L. flavum, L. notatum) Boraginaceae 8.36 (NA) 5.11 Cohen, 2012; Fig. S2e Unknown  
Lonicera sempervirens clade (4/4; L. arizonica, L. ciliosa, L. dioica, L. sempervirens) Caprifoliaceae 9.19 (4.8-13.05 7.0 (3.67-10.60) Smith & Donoghue, 2010; Figs. 1 and 2f Archilochus alexandrei, Archilochus colubris, Selasphorus platycercus, Selasphorus rufus, Selasphorus sasin, Stellula calliope Dennis & Tekulsky, 1991, Williamson, 2001
Monarda didyma Lamiaceae 0.56 (NA) - Figs. 1 and 2g Archilochus colubris, Selasphorus rufus Schuchmann, 1999, Williamson, 2001
Ribes speciosum Grossulariaceae 1.45 (0.10-3.07) - Figs. 1 and 2h Calypte anna Stiles, 1973
Scrophularia macrantha Scrophulariaceae 3.57 (0.65-7.61) - Scheunert & Heubl 2011; Fig. 1 Selasphorus rufus Schuchmann, 1999