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Table 2 The 17 temperate South American hummingbird-adapted plant species/clades, their family assignment, stem and/or crown ages, and pollinators. Numbers in parentheses after clade names refer to the number of species in the alignment. Full chronograms are in the online supporting materials Figs. S3a-h. The very long stem lineage of Philesiaceae (crown age 6.7 my, stem age 58.8 my), a Southern Chilean family of two species, is explained by its closest living relative species in Australia (with 52 my old macrofossils in Tasmania [64])

From: The temporal build-up of hummingbird/plant mutualisms in North America and temperate South America

Split of species or clade from nearest relative in alignment Family Stem age (my) Crown age (my) Age reference; figure number Pollinators Pollinator reference
Campsidium valdivianum Bignoniaceae 12.8 (NA) - Figs. 2, S3a Sephanoides sephanoides Aizen & Vazquez, 2006
Chilean Gesneriaceae (3; Asteranthera ovata, Mitraria coccinea, Sarmienta repens) Gesneriaceae 26.2 (NA) 16.28 (NA) Woo et al., 2011; Fig. 2 Sephanoides sephanoides Aizen & Vazquez, 2006
Cuminia eriantha Lamiaceae 4.07 (NA) - Drew & Systma, 2012; Fig. 2 Sephanoides fernandensis, Sephanoides sephanoides Bernadello et al., 2001
Dendroseris litoralis Asteraceae 3.4 (NA) - Figs. 2, S3b Sephanoides fernandensis, Sephanoides sephanoides Schuchmann, 1999
Fuchsia lycioides Onagraceae 17.14 (NA) - Berry et al., 2004; Fig. 2 Rhodopsis vesper, Sephanoides sephanoides Atsatt & Rudel (1982), Reid et al. (2002) mentions that S. sephaiodes and F. lycioides occur in the same locality
Fuchsia magellanica Onagraceae 5.23 (NA) - Berry et al., 2004; Fig. 2 Patagona gigas, Sephanoides sephanoides Smith-Ramirez, 1993, Belmonte Schwarzbaum, 1999
Latua pubiflora Solanaceae 14.11 (NA) - Figs. 2, S3c Sephanoides sephanoides Based on plant distribution
Lepechinia salviae Lamiaceae 3.65 (NA) - Drew & Sytsma, 2013; Fig. 2 - -
Ochagavia clade (3/4; Fascicularia bicolor, O. carnea, O. elegans) Bromeliaceae 8.12 (NA) 6.38 (NA) Givnish et al., 2013; Fig. 2 Sephanoides sephanoides Sephanoides fernandensis Roy et al., 1998, Medan & Montaldo, 2005
Philesia magellanica, Lapagaria rosea Philesiaceae 58.8 (NA) 6.74 (NA) Chacón & Renner, 2014; Fig. 2 Patagona gigas, Sephanoides sephanoides Belmonte Schwarzbaum, 1999, Aizen & Vazquez, 2006
Puya coerulea Bromeliaceae 1.68 (NA) - Figs. 2, S3d Patagona gigas; Oreotrochilus leucopleurus Jabaily & Sytsma, 2010; Hornung et al., 2013
Puya venusta Bromeliaceae 0.68 (NA) - Figs. 2, S3d Patagona gigas Jabaily & Sytsma, 2010
Rhaphithamnus venustus Verbenaceae 1.96 (NA) - Figs. 2, S3e Sephanoides sephanoides, Sephanoides fernandensis Smith-Ramirez, 1993, Schuchmann, 1999
Schizanthus grahamii Solanaceae 1.98 (NA) - Figs. 2, S3f Oreotrochilus leucopleurus Perez et al., 2006
Sophora fernandeziana S. masafuerana Fabaceae 1.03 (NA) - Ruiz et al., 2004; Fig. 2 Sephanoides sephanoides Sephanoides fernandensis Bernadello et al., 2004
Tristerix (3; T. aphyllus, T. corymbosus, T. verticillatus) Loranthaceae 6.85 (NA) 4.71 (NA) Figs. 2, S3g Patagona gigas, Sephanoides sephanoides Smith-Ramirez, 1993; Amico et al., 2007
Vestia foetida Solanaceae 12.85 (NA) - Figs. 2, S3h Sephanoides sephanoides Based on plant distribution