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Table 2 List of cranial and mandibular landmarks and their definition used in this study (Fig. 2)

From: Growth trajectories in the cave bear and its extant relatives: an examination of ontogenetic patterns in phylogeny

Cranial landmarks (dorsal)
1 Anterior point of the interpremaxillary suture at the alveolar margin of the incisors
2/3 Anterior point of the premaxillo-maxillary suture at the alveolar margin of the incisors
4 Anterior point of the internasal suture
5 Intersection of internasal and interfrontal sutures
6/7 Dorsal point of the lacrimal bone where it meets the frontal bone and the maxilla
8/9 Dorsal tip of the frontal process at the zygomatic arch
10/11 Tip of the post-orbital process
12 Intersection of the interparietal and interfrontal sutures
13/14 Posterior point of the external auditory meatus
15/16 Intersection of parietal, squamosal, and supraoccipital bones
17 Distal point of the external occipital protuberance
Cranial landmarks (ventral)
18/19 Posterior point of the canine alveolus
20/21 Posterior point of the tooth row at the alveolar margin
22 Posterior point of maximum concavity on the palatine
23/24 Ventral point of the jugo-maxillary suture
25/26 Ventral point of the jugo-squamosal suture
27/28 Intersection of basioccipital, basisphenoid, and auditory bulla
29/30 Tip of the mastoid process
31/32 Ventral tip of the postglenoid process
33/34 Lateral point of the occipital condyle
35 Antero-ventral point of the foramen magnum
36 Postero-dorsal point of the foramen magnum
Mandibular landmarks
1 Antero-ventral point of the mandibular symphysis and anterior part of the alveolar margin of the incisor
2 Postero-dorsal border of the canine alveolus
3 Anterior point of the alveolar margin of p4
4 Posterior point of the alveolar margin of the tooth row
5 Posterior edge of the coronoid process
6 Lateral edge of the articular surface of the condyloid process
7 Medial edge of the articular surface of the condyloid process
8 Tip of the angular process
9 Ventral point of the symphyseal region