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Table 3 Cranial and mandibular Procrustes distances between age classes and species

From: Growth trajectories in the cave bear and its extant relatives: an examination of ontogenetic patterns in phylogeny

   U. americanus U. arctos U. maritimus U. spelaeus U. arctos
   adult adult adult adult juvenile
(a) Procrustes shape variation of the cranium       
U. arctos adult 0.0391 (<.0001)     
U. maritimus adult 0.0528 (<.0001) 0.0597 (<.0001)    
U. spelaeus adult 0.0785 (<.0001) 0.0657 (<.0001) 0.086 (<.0001)   
U. arctos juvenile 0.1068 (<.0001) 0.1051 (<.0001) 0.1328 (<.0001) 0.1451 (<.0001)  
U. spelaeus juvenile 0.0779 (0.0106) 0.0682 (0.0685) 0.1037 (0.0003) 0.0777 (0.009) 0.091 (0.041)
(b) Nonallometric shape variation of the cranium       
U. arctos adult 0.0415 (<.0001)     
U. maritimus adult 0.0494 (<.0001) 0.0597 (<.0001)    
U. spelaeus adult 0.0554 (<.0001) 0.0473 (<.0001) 0.078 (<.0001)   
U. arctos juvenile 0.064 (<.0001) 0.0426 (<.0001) 0.0798(<.0001) 0.0271 (0.0001)  
U. spelaeus juvenile 0.0789 (<.0001) 0.0734 (0.0249) 0.1015 (0.0001) 0.0439 (0.0916) 0.0626 (0.2624)
(a) Procrustes shape variation of the mandible       
U. arctos adult 0.0301 (<.0001)     
U. maritimus adult 0.0461 (<.0001) 0.0411 (<.0001)    
U. spelaeus adult 0.0523 (<.0001) 0.0565 (<.0001) 0.0784 (<.0001)   
U. arctos juvenile 0.1109 (<.0001) 0.1003 (<.0001) 0.1179 (<.0001) 0.1335 (<.0001)  
U. spelaeus juvenile 0.1001 (0.0002) 0.0949 (<.0001) 0.1218 (<.0001) 0.1002 (<.0001) 0.0741 (0.0183)
(b) Nonallometric shape variation of the mandible       
U. arctos adult 0.0417 (<.0001)     
U. maritimus adult 0.0504 (<.0001) 0.0416 (<.0001)    
U. spelaeus adult 0.0517 (<.0001) 0.0442 (<.0001) 0.0733 (<.0001)   
U. arctos juvenile 0.0659 (<.0001) 0.0382 (<.0001) 0.0666 (<.0001) 0.0371 (0.0025)  
U. spelaeus juvenile 0.081 (0.0002) 0.077 (<.0001) 0.1046 (<.0001) 0.0418 (0.1602) 0.0685 (0.0849)
  1. Procrustes distances for non-size corrected and size corrected variation is given. Significance values are given in brackets and significant results are in bold.