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Table 2 Candidate residues for spectral shifting between paralogous UVS opsin copies e.g., UVS1 vs. UVS2) based on combined evidence

From: A cure for the blues: opsin duplication and subfunctionalization for short-wavelength sensitivity in jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

Gene Site Location Positive branch-site selection in Buprestidae (this study) Branch label (see Fig. X) UVS1 residue UVS2 residue Structural significance of substitution (this study) Positive selection in other organisms at homologous sites (previous studies) Wavelength shifts in other organisms at homologous sites (previous studies)
UV 12 EL Acmaeodera diffusa UVS2 UV-F V P imposed backbone rigidity Lepidoptera: Heliconius UV A37E [28] -
105 EL Buprestidae UVS1 UV-C T T/L gain of polarity (T–L) Lepidoptera: Heliconius UV T121I [28] -
Acmaeodera diffusa UVS2 UV-F A L increase in size
107 EL Buprestidae UVS2 UV-D H F/M/Y loss of positive charge (to polar or neutral), increase in size (H–Y) Lepidoptera: Heliconius UV A123S/T [28] -
118 CBP, TM3 - - T/S T most likely insignificant Coleoptera: Photinus UVS S133 [43] Lepidoptera: Pieris rapae SWS S116A (13 nm hypsochromic shift) [11]
125 TM3 Acmaeodera diffusa UVS2 UV-F G S gain of polarity, increase in size - Vertebrates: Rh1 125 (-5 nm to +8 nm shifts) [75]
137 CL Buprestidae UVS2 UV-D T H gain of positive charge (from polar), increase in size - Mammals: Rhodopsin V137M (retinitis pigmentosa) [76]
172 TM4 Acmaeodera diffusa UVS2 UV-F F Y gain of polarity - Lepidoptera: LWS L145M/F/I (blue shifts) [78]
186 CBP, EL Buprestidae UVS2 UV-D A Q gain of polarity, increase in size Lepidoptera: Heliconius UVS S202A [28] -
188 CBP, EL Acmaeodera diffusa UVS2 UV-F S G loss of polarity, decrease in size Lepidoptera: Heliconius UVS T204S [28] -
207 CBP, TM5 Buprestidae UVS2 UV-D I L most likely insignificant - Vertebrates: SWS L207M/I (6 nm shift plus additive effects) [82, 83]
242a CL Buprestidae UVS2 UV-D A Q gain of polarity, increase in size Coleoptera: Photinus UVS A268 [43] -
T/S Q change in polarity, increase in size
261 CBP, TM6 - - F/Y F loss of polarity (Y–F) - Human: Y277F (red/green pigment variation) [81]; Vertebrates: SWS T261F (5 nm blue shift) [82]
272 TM6 Acmaeodera diffusa UVS2 UV-F S C gain of potential for disulfide bonding Coleoptera: Photinus UVS S299 [43] -
293 TM7 Acmaeodera diffusa UVS2 UV-F C L loss of polarity and potential for disulfide bonding Lepidoptera: Heliconius UVS V321I [28] Human: Y309F (red/green pigment variation) [81]
294 TM7 Buprestidae UVS1 UV-C F T/A loss of polarity (F–T), increase in size Coleoptera: Photinus UVS T321 [43] -
Acmaeodera diffusa UVS2 UV-F C F increase in size, loss of polarity and potential for disulfide bonding
  1. agap between bovine reside 242 & 243, original residue A267 in Acmaeodera diffusa UVS1Residues provided are for the lineage in which positive selection occurs. Sites numbered according to bovine in column two; sites numbered according to original study in columns 9–10. CBP: chromophore binding pocket; CL: cytoplasmic loop; EL: extracellular loop; TM: transmembrane helix