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Table 3 Candidate residues for spectral shifting between paralogous LWS opsin copies e.g., LWS1 vs. LWS2) based on combined evidence

From: A cure for the blues: opsin duplication and subfunctionalization for short-wavelength sensitivity in jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

Gene Site Location Positive branch-site selection in Buprestidae (this study) Branch label (see Fig. X) LWS1 residue LWS2 residue LWS3 residue (EAB males) Structural significance of substitution (this study) Positive selection in other organisms at homologous sites (previous studies) Wavelength shifts in other organisms at homologous sites (previous studies)
LW 44 TM1    I I/M   most likely insignificant (I–M) Lepidoptera: Limenitis spp. LWS I17M (positive selection and blue shifts) [21, 78]; I44M suggested for Lepidoptera [77]; Mammals: Rhodopsin M44T (3 nm blue shift) [76]
46 TM1 Buprestidae LWS1 LW-E T V   gain of polarity   Vertebrates: SWS F46A/L [79, 83]
I V   most likely insignificant
C I   gain of polarity and potential for disulfide bonding
91 TM2    A V/S   most likely insignificant (A–V) or gain of polarity (A–S) Lepidoptera: Limenitis spp. LWS A64S (positive selection and blue shifts) [21, 78]; Vertebrates: SWS P91S (10 nm blue shift) [82]
93 TM2 Acmaeodera diffusa LWS2 LW-F P E   gain of backbone flexibility, increase in size, gain of negative charge (from neutral)   Vertebrates: SWS T93L/V [74, 83]
122 CBP, TM3    T/C C   gain of potential for disulfide bonding (T–C)   Bovine: E122Q (17 nm blue shift) [12]; Vertebrates: SWS I122M (6 nm blue shift) [82]
123 TM3 Coleoptera LWS (some) + Agrilus planipennis LWS3 (male) LW-H V T I loss of polarity (T–I) or most likely insignificant (V–I)   Lepidoptera: LW 97 [8, 20]
Buprestidae LWS1 LW-E V/A T   loss of polarity
156 TM4 Coleoptera LWS (some) + Agrilus planipennis LWS3 (male) LW-H W R Q gain of positive charge from neutral (W–R), gain of polarity (W–Q), loss of positive charge (to polar) and decrease in size (R–Q) Lepidoptera: Heliconius UVS M171L [28]  
Acmaeodera diffusa LWS 1 LW-G W R   loss of positive charge (to neutral)
164 TM4    S/T S/T/C/A   most likely insignificant (S/T–S/T) Lepidoptera: Limenitis spp., LWS S137A (positive selection and blue shifts) [21]; S138A suggested for Lepidoptera [77]; Humans: S180A (red/green pigment variation, 5 nm shift) [73, 81]
gain of potential for disulfide bonding (S/T–C)
loss of polarity (S/T–A)
170 TM4 Coleoptera LWS (some) + Agrilus planipennis LWS3 (male) LW-H A A L increase in size (A–L) Lepidoptera: Heliconius UVS M185L [28]  
197 EL Coleoptera LWS (some) + Agrilus planipennis LWS3 (male) LW-H D D E most likely insignificant (D–E)   Lepidoptera: LWS 170 (blue shifts) [78]; Vertebrates: LWS 197 [80]
211 CBP, TM5 Buprestidae LWS1 LW-E C V   gain of polarity and disulfide bond potential Lepidoptera: Heliconius UVS S125T/A [28] Bovine: Rh1 H211C (5 nm shift) [12]; Vertebrates: SWS S211C (2 nm blue shift) [82]
242a CL Acmaeodera diffusa LWS1 LW-G Ab A   no substitutionb Coleoptera: Photinus UVS A268 [43]  
269 CBP, TM6    L/A/M L   increase in size (A–L)   Bovine: LWS A269T (14 nm toward red) [9]; Human: T269A (red/green pigment variation, 15 nm shift) [73, 81]
most likely insignificant (M–L)
274 TM6 Buprestidae LWS1 + Acmaeodera diffusa LWS2 LW-C T/V/L/A T   loss of polarity (V/L/A–T)   Lepidoptera: LWS 259 [20]
281 EL Coleoptera LWS (some) + Agrilus planipennis LWS3 (male) LW-H A A K gain of positive charge (from neutral) and increase in size (A–K) Coleoptera: Photinus LWS T309 [43]  
  1. agap between bovine reside 242 & 243, original residue A268 in Acmaeodera diffusa LWS1
  2. balthough there is no variation of amino acids at site A268 in Acmaeodera diffusa, all other buprestids Residues provided are for the lineage in which positive selection occurs. Sites numbered according to bovine in column 2; sites numbered according to original study in columns 9–10. CBP: chromophore binding pocket; CL: cytoplasmic loop; EL: extracellular loop; TM: transmembrane helix