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Table 2 Summary results from general linear mixed models testing for differences in head morphology (overall head shape extracted from a principal component analysis, gillraker number and gillraker length) between threespine sticklebacks from marine and the freshwater habitats

From: The temporal window of ecological adaptation in postglacial lakes: a comparison of head morphology, trophic position and habitat use in Norwegian threespine stickleback populations

Test Source DF Estimate ± SE F P
Head shape (PC1) Intercept   0.019 ± 0.008   0.021
R2 = 0.62 Habitat (marine vs freshwater) 1 −0.017 ± 0.006 8.07 0.009
N fish = 504 Sex 1 0.004 ± 0.000 55.22 < 0.001
N populations = 26 Total length (cm) 1 −0.001 ± 0.001 0.89 0.345
Head shape (PC2) Intercept   0.024 ± 0.005   < 0.001
R2 = 0.63 Habitat (marine vs freshwater) 1 0.016 ± 0.003 38.06 < 0.001
N fish = 504 Sex 1 0.005 ± 0.000 126.20 < 0.001
N populations = 26 Total length (cm) 1 −0.009 ± 0.001 95.62 < 0.001
Head shape (PC3) Intercept   −0.014 ± 0.006   0.027
R2 = 0.25 Habitat (marine vs freshwater) 1 −0.006 ± 0.002 4.78 0.038
N fish = 504 Sex 1 0.003 ± 0.001 28.92 < 0.001
N populations = 26 Total length (cm) 1 0.004 ± 0.001 12.30 0.005
Head shape (PC4) Intercept   −0.027 ± 0.006   < 0.001
R2 = 0.37 Habitat (marine vs freshwater) 1 0.005 ± 0.003 2.24 0.147
N fish = 504 Sex 1 −0.001 ± 0.001 1.47 0.227
N populations = 26 Total length (cm) 1 0.006 ± 0.001 26.92 < 0.001
Gillraker number Intercept   18.897 ± 0.683   < 0.001
R2 = 0.29 Habitat (marine vs freshwater) 1 −0.078 ± 0.374 0.04 0.836
N fish = 503 Sex 1 −0.185 ± 0.058 10.17 0.002
N populations = 26 Total length (cm) 1 0.048 ± 0.119 0.16 0.686
Gillraker length Intercept   0.380 ± 0.060   < 0.001
R2 = 0.61 Habitat 1 −0.177 ± 0.028 35.85 < 0.001
N fish = 503 Sex 1 −0.043 ± 0.005 62.71 < 0.001
N populations = 26 Total length (cm) 1 0.137 ± 0.011 155.21 < 0.001
  1. Total length (cm) and sex used as covariates. Lake identity was used as a random variable