Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 4 Summary results from general linear mixed models testing for differences in head morphology (extracted from the principal component analysis, gillraker number and gillraker length) of threespine sticklebacks from 25 freshwater locations

From: The temporal window of ecological adaptation in postglacial lakes: a comparison of head morphology, trophic position and habitat use in Norwegian threespine stickleback populations

Test Source DF Estimate ± SE F P
Head shape (PC1) Intercept   0.023 ± 0.011   0.038
R2 = 0.57 Littoral carbon (α) 1 −0.004 ± 0.003 1.76 0.185
N fish = 482 Trophic position (Tpos) 1 −0.000 ± 0.003 0.04 0.833
N populations = 25 Sex 1 0.005 ± 0.001 79.20 < 0.001
  Total length (cm) 1 −0.004 ± 0.001 12.42 < 0.001
Head shape (PC2) Intercept   −0.011 ± 0.011   0.295
R2 = 0.25 Littoral carbon (α) 1 0.004 ± 0.003 1.64 0.203
N fish = 482 Trophic position (Tpos) 1 0.002 ± 0.003 0.71 0.401
N populations = 25 Sex 1 0.005 ± 0.000 58.81 < 0.001
  Total length (cm) 1 −0.000 ± 0.001 0.04 0.836
Head shape (PC3) Intercept   −0.039 ± 0.009   < 0.001
R2 = 0.42 Littoral carbon (α) 1 −0.002 ± 0.002 0.99 0.322
N fish = 482 Trophic position (Tpos) 1 0.002 ± 0.002 0.53 0.467
N populations = 25 Sex 1 −0.000 ± 0.000 3.64 0.057
  Total length (cm) 1 0.008 ± 0.001 65.20 < 0.001
Head shape (PC4) Intercept   0.018 ± 0.008   0.036
R2 = 0.33 Littoral carbon (α) 1 −0.000 ± 0.002 0.00 0.988
N fish = 482 Trophic position (Tpos) 1 0.002 ± 0.002 0.61 0.435
N populations = 25 Sex 1 0.000 ± 0.000 1.63 0.203
  Total length (cm) 1 −0.005 ± 0.001 30.25 < 0.001
Gillraker number Intercept   19.474 ± 1.055   < 0.001
R2 = 0.30 Littoral carbon (α) 1 −0.176 ± 0.294 0.36 0.550
N fish = 481 Trophic position (Tpos) 1 −0.153 ± 0.274 0.31 0.578
N populations = 25 Sex 1 −0.173 ± 0.060 8.34 0.004
  Total length (cm) 1 0.050 ± 0.125 0.16 0.693
Gillraker length Intercept   0.190 ± 0.095   0.046
R2 = 0.42 Littoral carbon (α) 1 0.075 ± 0.026 8.41 0.004
N fish = 481 Trophic position (Tpos) 1 −0.016 ± 0.025 0.42 0.515
N populations = 25 Sex 1 −0.045 ± 0.006 67.84 < 0.001
  Total length (cm) 1 0.139 ± 0.011 148.80 < 0.001
  1. Habitat use (proportion of organic carbon extracted from littoral sources (α), trophic position (Tpos)), total length (cm) and sex were used as factors. Lake identity was used as a random variable